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Victor Koh, Carol Y. Cheung, Wan-Ling Wong, Chui-Min Cheung, Jie Jin Wang, Paul Mitchell, Christine Younan, Seang Mei Saw, Tien Y. Wong; Prevalence and Risk Factors of Epiretinal Membrane in Asian Indians. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(2):1018-1022. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-8557.
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To describe the prevalence of epiretinal membrane (ERM) and its risk factors in an Indian population and compare the findings with other populations.
The Singapore Indian Eye Study is a population-based survey of 3400 Asian Indians aged between 40 and 80 years. A comprehensive ophthalmic examination, standardized interviews, and laboratory blood tests were performed. Digital retinal fundus photographs were assessed for the presence of ERM following the definitions used in the Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES). ERM was classified into a less severe form termed “cellophane macular reflex” (CMR) and a more severe form termed “preretinal macular fibrosis” (PMF) and also as primary and secondary (if it was associated with retinal pathology or cataract surgery).
A total of 3328 persons (mean age 57.8 ± [SD] 10.1 years, and 50.2% male) provided data in this study. The age-standardized prevalence of ERM was 7.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.8–8.6), CMR 4.1% (95% CI, 3.5–4.9), and PMF 3.5% (95% CI, 2.9–4.2). Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.09; 95% CI, 1.07–1.11, per year increase), increasing myopic refraction (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.07–1.22, per diopter decrease), and narrower retinal arteriolar diameter (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00–1.03, per μm decrease) were significantly associated with primary ERM.
The age-standardized prevalence of ERM in the Indian population in Singapore was 7.6%. This is similar to Malays in Singapore (8.0%) and higher than the prevalence in whites in Australia (4.7%). Significant factors associated with primary ERM were older age, myopia, and narrower retinal arteriolar diameter.
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