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David A. Berntsen, Loraine T. Sinnott, Donald O. Mutti, Karla Zadnik; A Randomized Trial Using Progressive Addition Lenses to Evaluate Theories of Myopia Progression in Children with a High Lag of Accommodation. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(2):640-649. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.11-7769.
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To compare the effect of wearing, then ceasing to wear, progressive addition lenses (PALs) versus single vision lenses (SVLs) on myopia progression in children with high accommodative lag to evaluate accommodative lag and mechanical tension as theories of myopia progression.
Eighty-five children (age range, 6–11 years) with spherical equivalent (SE) cycloplegic autorefraction between −0.75 D and −4.50 D were randomly assigned to wear SVLs or PALs for 1 year; all children wore SVLs a second year. Children had high accommodative lag and also had near esophoria if their myopia was greater than −2.25 D SE. The primary outcome after each year was the previous year's change in SE.
When the children were randomly assigned to SVLs or PALs, the adjusted 1-year changes in SE were −0.52 D (SVL group) and −0.35 D (PAL group; treatment effect = 0.18 D; P = 0.01). When all children wore SVLs the second year, there was no difference in myopia progression between SVL and former PAL wearers (0.06 D; P = 0.50). Accommodative lag was not associated with myopia progression.
The statistically significant, but clinically small, PAL effect suggests that treatments aimed at reducing foveal defocus may not be as effective as previously thought in myopic children with high accommodative lag. Finding no evidence of treatment loss after discontinuing PAL wear supports hyperopic defocus-based theories such as accommodative lag; however, not finding an association between accommodative lag and myopia progression is inconsistent with the PAL effect being due to decreased foveal blur during near work. (Clinical Trials.gov number, NCT00335049.)
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