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Ellappan Babu, Sudha Ananth, Rajalakshmi Veeranan-Karmegam, Veena Coothankandaswamy, Sylvia B. Smith, Thomas Boettger, Vadivel Ganapathy, Pamela M. Martin; Transport via SLC5A8 (SMCT1) Is Obligatory for 2-Oxothiazolidine-4-Carboxylate to Enhance Glutathione Production in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(8):5749-5757. doi: 10.1167/iovs.10-6825.
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To evaluate the role of SLC5A8 in the transport of 2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) and to determine whether OTC augments glutathione production in RPE cells, thereby providing protection against oxidative stress.
SLC5A8-mediated transport of OTC was monitored in Xenopus laevis oocytes by electrophysiological means. Saturation kinetics, Na+-activation kinetics, and inhibition by ibuprofen were analyzed by monitoring OTC-induced currents as a measure of transport activity. Oxidative stress was induced in ARPE-19 cells and primary RPE cells isolated from wild type and Slc5a8 -/- mouse retinas using H2O2, and the effects of OTC on cell death and intracellular glutathione concentration were examined.
Heterologous expression of human SLC5A8 in X. laevis oocytes induced Na+-dependent inward currents in the presence of OTC under voltage-clamp conditions. The transport of OTC via SLC5A8 was saturable, with a K t of 104 ± 3 μM. The Na+-activation kinetics was sigmoidal with a Hill coefficient of 1.9 ± 0.1, suggesting involvement of two Na+ in the activation process. Ibuprofen, a blocker of SLC5A8, inhibited SLC5A8-mediated OTC transport; the concentration necessary for half-maximal inhibition was 17 ± 1 μM. OTC increased glutathione levels and protected ARPE-19 and primary RPE cells isolated from wild type mouse retinas from H2O2-induced cell death. These effects were abolished in primary RPE isolated from Slc5a8 -/- mouse retinas.
OTC is a transportable substrate for SLC5A8. OTC augments glutathione production in RPE cells, thereby protecting them from oxidative damage. Transport via SLC5A8 is obligatory for this process.
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