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Xiaoling Liang, Huanjiao Zhou, Yungang Ding, Jie Li, Cheng Yang, Yan Luo, Shiqing Li, Gang Sun, Xulong Liao, Wang Min; TMP Prevents Retinal Neovascularization and Imparts Neuroprotection in an Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy Model. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(4):2157-2169. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-9315.
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To evaluate the effects of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on retinal neovascularization (NV) and neuroprotection in an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model.
Neonatal C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 75% oxygen from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P12 and then returned to room air. TMP (200 mg/kg) or normal saline was given daily from P12 to P17. Immunostaining, HE staining, TUNEL assay, and RT-PCR were used to assess the effects of TMP on retinal neurovascular repair.
TMP effectively prevented pathologic NV and accelerated physiologic revascularization by enhancing the formation of endothelial tip cells at the edges of the repairing capillary networks and preserving the astrocytic template in the avascular retina. TMP also prevented morphologic changes and significantly decreased TUNEL-positive cells in the avascular retina by rescuing neurons such as amacrine, rod bipolar, horizontal, and Müller cells. In TMP-treated mice retinas, there was a less obvious loss of amacrine cell bodies and their distinct bands; the number of both rod bipolar and horizontal cell bodies, as well as the density of their dendrites in the outer plexiform layer, was greater than that in OIR control mice. TMP not only decreased the loss of alignment of Müller cell bodies and distortion of processes but reduced the reactive expression of GFAP in Müller cells. Furthermore, HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA expression were downregulated in TMP-treated mice retinas.
TMP improved neurovascular recovery by preventing NV and protecting retinal astroglia cells and neurons from ischemia-induced cell death partially due to its downregulation of HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA expression.
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