Purchase this article with an account.
Li Huang, Jiajian Liang, Yiqun Geng, Wai-Ming Tsang, Xiaowu Yao, Vishal Jhanji, Mingzhi Zhang, Herman S. Cheung, Chi Pui Pang, Gary Hin-Fai Yam; Directing Adult Human Periodontal Ligament–Derived Stem Cells to Retinal Fate. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(6):3965-3974. doi: 10.1167/iovs.13-11910.
Download citation file:
© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To investigate the retinal fate competence of human postnatal periodontal ligament (PDL)-derived stem cells (PDLSC) through a directed differentiation mimicking mammalian retinogenesis.
Human teeth were collected from healthy subjects younger than 35 years old. Primary PDLSC were isolated by collagenase digestion and cultivated. PDLSC at passage 3 were cultured in the induction media containing Noggin (antagonist of bone morphogenic protein) and Dkk-1 (antagonist of Wnt/β-catenin signaling). Gene expression of neural crest cells, retinal progenitors, and retinal neurons, including photoreceptors, was revealed by RNA analyses, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry. The neuronal-like property of differentiated cells in response to excitatory glutamate was examined by fluo-4-acetoxymethyl calcium imaging assay.
Primary human PDLSC stably expressed marker genes for neural crest (Notch1, BMP2, Slug, Snail, nestin, and Tuj1), mesenchymal stem cell (CD44, CD90, and vimentin), and embryonic stem cell (c-Myc, Klf4, Nanog, and SSEA4). Under low attachment culture, PDLSC generated neurospheres expressing nestin, p75/NGFR, Pax6, and Tuj1 (markers of neural progenitors). When neurospheres were plated on Matrigel-coated surface, they exhibited rosette-like outgrowth. They expressed eye field transcription factors (Pax6, Rx, Lhx, Otx2). By flow cytometry, 94% of cells were Pax6nuclearRx+, indicative of retinal progenitors. At prolonged induction, they expressed photoreceptor markers (Nrl, rhodopsin and its kinase) and showed significant responsiveness to excitatory glutamate.
Primary human PDLSC could be directed to retinal progenitors with competence for photoreceptor differentiation. Human neural crest–derived PDL is readily accessible and can be an ample autologous source of undifferentiated cells for retinal cell regeneration.
This PDF is available to Subscribers Only