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Bum-Joo Cho, Jang Won Heo, Tae Wan Kim, Jeeyun Ahn, Hum Chung; Prevalence and Risk Factors of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Korea: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2011. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(2):1101-1108. doi: 10.1167/iovs.13-13096.
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To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the general Korean adult population.
The study involved a nationally representative Korean population from the 2010 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 7899 subjects ≥40 years old participated in health interviews, physical examinations, and ophthalmologic assessment including fundus photography.
The overall prevalence of early AMD was estimated at 6.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.1–7.4), and that of late AMD was estimated at 0.7% (95% CI, 0.5–0.9), which included 0.5% prevalence of neovascular AMD and 0.2% prevalence of geographic atrophy. The prevalence rates of early and late AMD among participants aged ≥65 years were 16.9% and 1.8%, respectively. Hyperopia was positively associated with the presence of any AMD type (odds ratio [OR], 1.08 for every 1 diopter increase). In multivariate analyses, significant risk factors for the presence of any AMD type were age, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level, serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) level, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) serum positivity (OR, 2.26). The risk factors for late AMD included age, ever-smoking history (OR, 2.18), serum GGT level, and systolic blood pressure.
The prevalence of AMD in Korea was similar to the prevalence of pooled Asian and Western populations. Age and serum GGT level were strongly associated with both the presence of any AMD and late AMD. Additionally, serum HDL level, HBsAg serum positivity, ever-smoking history, and systolic blood pressure were identified as risk factors for AMD.
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