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Caterina Ripamonti, Jonathan Aboshiha, G. Bruce Henning, Panagiotis I. Sergouniotis, Michel Michaelides, Anthony T. Moore, Andrew R. Webster, Andrew Stockman; Vision in Observers With Enhanced S-Cone Syndrome: An Excess of S-Cones but Connected Mainly to Conventional S-Cone Pathways. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(2):963-976. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.13-12897.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
The effect of increased numbers of S-cone photoreceptors in enhanced S-cone syndrome (ESCS) was investigated psychophysically in six ESCS observers to understand more about relative cone sensitivities and postreceptoral organization.
Measures of temporal sensitivity or delay were made: S- and L-cone temporal acuity (critical flicker fusion, or CFF), S-cone temporal contrast sensitivity, and S-cone delay.
ESCS observers showed uniform enhancements of S-cone CFF of between 0.85 and 6.25 Hz, but reductions in L-cone CFF. They also showed higher S-cone temporal contrast sensitivities at medium and high S-cone adaptation levels, with sensitivity functions that peaked near 7.5 Hz but fell off at lower and higher frequencies. In contrast, the mean normal function was flat at low frequencies and fell off only at high frequencies. The S-cone signal, as in the normal, is subject to large phase delays.
We interpret the enhancements in CFF as increases in S-cone number in ESCS of between 1.39 and 11.32 times normal density (with a mean of 3.48). The peaked ESCS contrast-sensitivity functions are consistent with S-cone signal interactions that increase sensitivity at intermediate frequencies through constructive interference but decrease it at lower and higher frequencies through destructive interference. Measurements of S-cone delays relative to L- and M-cone signals show that the predominant S-cone signals in ESCS are negative and delayed as in normal observers, but reveal another faster, positive S-cone signal. This signal is also likely to be the cause of constructive and destructive interference in the contrast-sensitivity data of ESCS observers
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