Purchase this article with an account.
Kristine E. Lee, Barbara E. K. Klein, Ronald Klein; Changes in Refractive Error over a 5-Year Interval in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1999;40(8):1645-1649.
Download citation file:
© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
purpose. To examine changes in spherical equivalent over a 5-year period in
persons 43 to 84 years of age.
methods. All people 43 to 84 years of age and living in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin,
in 1988 were invited for a baseline examination (1988–1990) and a
5-year follow-up examination (1993–1995). Refractions were determined
according to the same protocol at both examinations. Aphakic and
pseudophakic eyes were excluded as well as eyes with best corrected
Snellen visual acuity of 20/40 and worse. After exclusions, refraction
was obtained on 3007 right eyes and 3012 left eyes of the 3684 people
participating in both examinations.
results. Right and left eyes behaved similarly. Spherical equivalent became more
positive in the youngest subjects and more negative in older subjects.
After adjusting for other factors, the 5-year change in spherical
equivalent of those 45, 55, 65, and 75 years of age was +0.15, +0.18,+
0.10, and −0.07 D, respectively. Severity of nuclear sclerosis was
related to the amount of change. Those with mild nuclear sclerosis at
baseline had a change of +0.2 D, whereas those with severe nuclear
sclerosis had a change of −0.5 D. The amount of change was also
related to gender, diabetes, and age at onset of myopia. It was
unrelated to education and baseline spherical equivalent.
conclusions. Changes in spherical equivalent over a 5-year period were small. Before
the age of 70, people became more hyperopic. After the age of 70,
people became more myopic. Much of the myopic change may be related to
increasing nuclear sclerosis.
This PDF is available to Subscribers Only