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Manami Maeda, Miho Sato, Tomohisa Ohmura, Yoji Miyazaki, Ai–Hou Wang, Shinobu Awaya; Binocular Depth-from-Motion in Infantile and Late-Onset Esotropia Patients with Poor Stereopsis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1999;40(12):3031-3036.
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purpose. There are at least two possible ways to detect motion-in-depth binocular
without monocular cues: the binocular disparities at different times
and a mechanism that detects interocular velocity differences. The
perception of interocular velocity differences (Binocular
depth-from-motion [BDFM]) depends on the relative velocity of the
images on the retina of the left and right eyes, and this information
can be experienced by normal and some strabismic patients. The purpose
of this study was to determine the characteristics of esotropic
patients who have BDFM but have poor stereopsis.
methods. Forty-one infantile and 28 late-onset esotropia patients with poor
stereopsis were studied. Dynamic stereopsis and BDFM were tested with
computer-generated random dot stereograms and kinematograms. The
correlations between BDFM and other binocular functional tests were
results. A total of 31 (44.9%) patients, 15 (36.5%) of the infantile and 16
(57.1%) of the late-onset esotropia group, passed the BDFM test. None
of these patients passed the random dot stereo test under static or
dynamic conditions. Fusion of the Worth four dot test at near
0.3 m was correlated with the presence of BDFM. Three of the 15
infantile and 10 of the 16 late-onset esotropic patients with positive
BDFM showed gross stereopsis as measured by the Titmus Fly. The angle
of strabismus was significantly smaller in the patients with positive
BDFM for the infantile and the late-onset esotropia groups.
conclusions. BDFM was present in about half of the esotropic patients who do not
have fine stereopsis. Ocular alignment within 10 to 15 prism diopters
is an important factor in obtaining BDFM. Strabismus surgery still
provides some binocular benefit for infantile esotropia patients who
were bypassed for early surgery. Separate mechanisms may underlie
static stereopsis and BDFM.
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