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Heimo Steffen, Mark F. Walker, David S. Zee; Rotation of Listing’s Plane with Convergence: Independence from Eye Position. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2000;41(3):715-721.
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purpose. To determine whether asymmetrical vergence results in a rotation of
Listing’s plane independent of vergence-associated changes of eye
position in the orbit.
methods. Six normal subjects were required to fixate on a 3 × 3 array
(40° on a side) of light-emitting diodes arranged on a flat screen
124 cm from the subject. Disparity-induced vergence was elicited with a
horizontal Fresnel prism (30 cm/m, ∼17°) placed in front of one
eye. In four subjects accommodative vergence (10° to 15°) was
produced by placing a minus spherical lens in front of one eye while
the other eye was covered. Eye position was measured binocularly using
three-axis search coils. Control data were collected without prisms
during monocular and binocular viewing. For all data a planar
regression was used to fit torsional eye position as a function of
horizontal and vertical position to calculate the horizontal and
vertical primary positions that define the orientation of Listing’s
results. In the prism experiment, the horizontal primary position of the eye not
wearing the prism rotated temporally by 3.9° ± 1.7° compared with
the both eyes viewing control condition. The rotation of the prism eye
was in a similar range (3.4° ± 2.0°). With accommodation, the
horizontal primary position of the viewing eye rotated temporally by
4.4° ± 1.4° compared with the monocular viewing control. In both
the accommodation and the prism paradigms there was usually a rotation
of vertical primary position downward.
conclusions. Vergence-induced changes in Listing’s plane can be independent of
changes in orbital position associated with vergence. This finding
supports a role for changes in central innervation in the elaboration
of Listing’s law.
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