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Masato Kubo, Yasushi Sonoda, Ryuji Muramatsu, Masahiko Usui; Immunogenicity of Human Amniotic Membrane in Experimental Xenotransplantation. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2001;42(7):1539-1546.
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purpose. The immunogenic characterization of amniotic membrane is still unknown.
This study was designed to examine the immunogenicity of human amniotic
membrane, by using experimental xenotransplantation models.
methods. Anti-human class I, class II, and Fas ligand monoclonal antibodies were
used against cryopreserved amniotic membrane and cell viability tested
for cryopreserved amniotic membrane. Amniotic membranes were then
transplanted to the limbal area, intracorneal space, and under the
kidney capsule. The scores of transparency and neovascularization after
transplantation were recorded by slit lamp microscopy. Host cell
infiltration was examined by hematoxylin-eosin or immunohistochemical
staining. Control grafts were transplanted human cryopreserved skin
results. Strong class I expression was observed in amniotic epithelium,
mesenchymal cells, and fibroblasts in cryopreserved amniotic membrane.
Some fibroblast cells unexpectedly expressed class II antigen. Fas
ligand–positive cells were also detected in mesenchymal cells of
amniotic stroma. Approximately 50% of epithelial cells of amniotic
membrane cryopreserved for several months were still viable. In limbal
transplantation, although some CD4+ and CD8+ T
cells surrounded the amniotic graft, the response was mild. In
intracorneal transplantation, all grafted amniotic membranes were
accepted and clear, without host cell infiltration. In contrast, all
skin grafts were rejected within 3 weeks after intracorneal
transplantation. In amniotic membrane transplantation under the kidney
capsule, extremely few host vessels and cells infiltrated the amniotic
membrane; however, more host cells infiltrated the skin tissues under
the kidney capsule.
conclusions. Amniotic membrane seems to be immune-privileged tissue and to contain
some immunoregulatory factors, including HLA-G and Fas ligand. The
amniotic membrane may be useful to supplement corneal collagen, and it
may be applied not only to the ocular surface but also
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