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Marcel Y. Avila, David A. Carré, Richard A. Stone, Mortimer M. Civan; Reliable Measurement of Mouse Intraocular Pressure by a Servo-Null Micropipette System. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2001;42(8):1841-1846.
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purpose. To develop a reliable technique for measuring intraocular pressure
(IOP) in the mouse.
methods. An electrophysiologic approach—the servo-null micropipette system
(SNMS)—for measuring hydrostatic pressure was adapted for the mouse
eye. Fine-tipped (5 μm in diameter) micropipettes were advanced
across the cornea with a piezoelectric micromanipulator, and the IOP
was continuously monitored for up to 46 minutes.
results. The micropipette tip was visualized in the anterior chamber. With the
SNMS, the IOP of black Swiss outbred mice under ketamine anesthesia was
17.8 ± 0.4 mm Hg, higher than values previously estimated in
inbred mouse strains by a larger bore microneedle manometric technique.
After withdrawal of the micropipette, a second penetration led to a
similar level of IOP. Hypotonic solutions increased and hypertonic
solutions decreased IOP. Drugs that decrease inflow (acetazolamide,
timolol) or increase outflow facility (pilocarpine, latanoprost) in
primates and humans lowered steady state IOP in the mouse. The
transient initial increase in IOP produced by pilocarpine reported in
other animals was also observed in the mouse. Xylazine-ketamine
anesthesia lowered IOP substantially in comparison with systemic
anesthesia with either ketamine or tribromoethanol alone.
conclusions. The SNMS is the first reliable, reproducible method for measuring mouse
IOP. The mouse IOP is sensitive not only to drugs known to reduce
aqueous humor inflow but also to drugs that increase aqueous humor
outflow facility in the eyes of primates and humans. The development of
the SNMS is an enabling step in the use of the mouse for glaucoma
research, including molecular genetics, molecular pharmacology, and the
search for novel antiglaucoma drugs.
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