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Mark S. LeDoux, Qihong Zhou, R. Bryan Murphy, Melissa L. Greene, Patrick Ryan; Parasympathetic Innervation of the Meibomian Glands in Rats. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2001;42(11):2434-2441.
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purpose. To determine the location of parasympathetic neurons that innervate the
meibomian glands in rats.
methods. The B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB), fast blue, and a
retrograde transneuronal tracer, the Bartha strain of pseudorabies
virus (PRV-Ba), were injected into the upper eyelids of adult
Sprague-Dawley rats after sectioning the ipsilateral branches of the
facial nerve and resecting the superior cervical ganglia. Brains and
orbital tissues were processed for the immunohistochemical detection of
PRV-Ba and CTB. In selected cases, series of brain sections were double
labeled for PRV-Ba and tyrosine hydroxylase to determine the
relationship between the A5 noradrenergic cell group and superior
salivatory nucleus, or for PRV-Ba and choline acetyltransferase to
establish the neurochemical phenotype of parasympathetic preganglionic
results. Labeled ganglionic cells were diffusely distributed within the
ipsilateral pterygopalatine ganglion (PPG) and along the more proximal
portions of the greater petrosal nerve (GPN). Labeled preganglionic
neurons were cholinergic and were located immediately dorsolateral to
the rostral-most portion of the facial nucleus and caudal superior
olive, where they intermingled with A5 noradrenergic cells.
conclusions. The meibomian glands and other structures within the lid margin are
subject to parasympathetic regulation by ganglion cells diffusely
distributed within the PPG and along more proximal portions of the GPN.
Cholinergic parasympathetic preganglionic neurons that project to
meibomian gland–innervating ganglion cells are located immediately
lateral, dorsal, and rostral to the facial motor nucleus in the region
commonly referred to as the superior salivatory
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