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Dorothy S. P. Fan, Dennis S. C. Lam, Robert F. Lam, Joseph T. F. Lau, King S. Chong, Eva Y. Y. Cheung, Ricky Y. K. Lai, Sek-Jin Chew; Prevalence, Incidence, and Progression of Myopia of School Children in Hong Kong. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004;45(4):1071-1075. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.03-1151.
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purpose. To determine the prevalence, incidence, and progression of myopia of Chinese children in Hong Kong.
methods. A cross-sectional survey was initially conducted. A longitudinal follow-up study was then conducted 12 months later.
results. A total of 7560 children of mean age 9.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.11–9.45; range, 5–16) participated in the study. Mean spherical equivalent refraction (SER) was −0.33 D (SD = 11.56; range, −13.13 to +14.25 D). Myopia (SER ≤ −0.50 D) was the most common refractive error and was found in 36.71% ± 2.87% (SD) of children. Prevalence of myopia correlated positively with older age. Children aged 11 years were almost 15 times more likely to have myopia than were children younger than 7 years (Odds ratio [OR] = 14.81; 95% CI = 14.17–15.48). Incidence of myopia was 144.1 ± 2.31 (SD) per 1000 primary school children per annum. Increasing age was correlated with increased incidence of myopia, with highest risk in children ages 11 years (OR = 2.27; 95% CI = 2.11–2.44). The average annual change in SER for children with myopia (SER ≤ −0.50 D) was −0.63 D (SD = 3.44) compared with −0.29 D (SD = 2.96) for those who were not myopic at the beginning of the study (P < 0.001).
conclusions. The results show that the prevalence and progression of myopia in Hong Kong children was much higher than those previously reported in Western countries. The long-term socioeconomic impact of these findings warrants further studies.
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