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Rana Arham Raashid, Agnes M. F. Wong, Manokaraananthan Chandrakumar, Alan Blakeman, Herbert C. Goltz; Short-Term Saccadic Adaptation in Patients With Anisometropic Amblyopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(10):6701-6711. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.13-12553.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Amblyopia is a developmental disorder characterized by impairment of spatiotemporal visual processing that also affects oculomotor and manual motor function. We investigated the effects of amblyopia on short-term visuomotor adaptation using a saccadic adaptation paradigm.
A total of 8 patients with anisometropic amblyopia and 11 visually-normal controls participated. Saccadic adaptation was induced using a double-step paradigm that displaced a saccadic visual target (at ±19°) back toward central fixation by 4.2° during the ongoing saccade. Three test blocks, preadaptation, adaptation, and postadaptation, were performed sequentially while participants viewed binocularly and monocularly with the amblyopic and fellow eyes (nondominant and dominant eyes in controls) in three separate sessions. The spatial and temporal characteristics of saccadic adaptation were measured.
Patients exhibited diminished saccadic gain adaptation. The percentage change in saccadic gain was lower in patients during amblyopic eye and binocular viewing compared to controls. Saccadic latencies were longer, and saccadic gains and latencies were more variable in patients during amblyopic eye viewing. The time constants of adaptation were comparable between controls and patients under all viewing conditions.
The short-term adaptation of saccadic gain was weaker and more variable in patients during amblyopic eye and binocular viewing. Our findings suggest that visual error information necessary for adaptation is imprecise in amblyopia, leading to reduced modulation of saccadic gain, and support the proposal that the error signal driving saccadic adaptation is visual.
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