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ALLAN E. KOLKER; Symposium on Glaucoma Hyperosmotic Agents in Glaucoma. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1970;9(6):418-423.
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Hyperosmotic agents lower intraocular pressure by creating an osmotic gradient between the blood and the ocular fluids. Factors affecting the osmotic gradient are described. The currently used hyperosmotic agents are discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are mentioned. Oral glycerol is the agent of choice in most cases of glaucoma, but it may produce nausea and vomiting in many patients. Isosorbide, a new hyperosmotic drug, tends to have fewer side effects than glycerol. Mannitol remains the most effective intravenously administered hyperosmotic agent. These drugs are of greatest value in the acute glaucomas and make the management of these diseases much safer and more effective.
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