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Sarah Hull, Gavin Arno, Vincent Plagnol, Sarah Chamney, Isabelle Russell-Eggitt, Dorothy Thompson, Simon C. Ramsden, Graeme C. M. Black, Anthony Robson, Graham E. Holder, Anthony T. Moore, Andrew R. Webster; The Phenotypic Variability of Retinal Dystrophies Associated With Mutations in CRX, With Report of a Novel Macular Dystrophy Phenotype. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(10):6934-6944. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.14-14715.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To present a detailed phenotypic and molecular study of a series of 18 patients from 11 families with retinal dystrophies consequent on mutations in the cone–rod homeobox (CRX) gene and to report a novel phenotype.
Families were ascertained from a tertiary clinic in the United Kingdom and enrolled into retinal dystrophy studies investigating the phenotype and molecular basis of inherited retinal disease. Eleven patients were ascertained from the study cohorts and a further seven from investigation of affected relatives. Detailed phenotyping included electrodiagnostic testing and retinal imaging. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing of all exons and intron-exon boundaries of CRX was performed on all 18 reported patients and segregation confirmed in available relatives.
Based on clinical characteristics and electrophysiology, four patients had Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), two had rod–cone dystrophy (RCD), five had cone–rod dystrophy (CORD), one had cone dystrophy (COD), and six had macular dystrophy with different phenotypes observed within 5 of 11 families. The macular dystrophy patients presented between 35 to 50 years of age and had visual acuities at last review ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 logMAR (20/32 to 20/630 Snellen). All 18 patients were heterozygous for a mutation in CRX with seven novel mutations identified. There was no evident association between age of onset and position or type of CRX mutation. De novo mutations were confirmed in three patients.
Mutations in CRX demonstrate significant phenotypic heterogeneity both between and within pedigrees. A novel, adult-onset, macular dystrophy phenotype is characterized, further extending our knowledge of the etiology of dominant macular dystrophies.
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