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James P. Canner, Thomas F. Linsenmayer, James K. Kubilus; Developmental Regulation of Trigeminal TRPA1 by the Cornea. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(1):29-36. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.14-15035.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
The cornea is densely innervated with nociceptive nerves that detect deleterious stimuli at the ocular surface and transduce these stimuli as sensations of pain. Thus, nociception is a major factor involved in preventing damage to corneal tissues. One class of molecules that is thought to be involved in detecting such stimuli is the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels. However, little is known about the acquisition of these channels during corneal development. Therefore, the present study examined the developmental acquisition of these receptors and elucidated certain parameters involved in this acquisition.
Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure the expression of genes including TRPA and Ret in vivo. In vitro cocultures between cornea and the ophthalmic lobe of the trigeminal ganglion were used to test interactions between nerves and corneas along with recombinant proteins.
TRPA1 mRNA showed a progressive temporal increase in the ophthalmic lobe of the trigeminal ganglion in vivo during embryonic development. In vitro, TRPA1 expression was significantly increased in the ganglion when cocultured with cornea, compared to ganglia cultured alone. Similarly, the addition of exogenous neurotrophin-3 (NT3) protein to cultured ganglia increased the expression of TRPA1 more than 100-fold. Addition of NT3 and neurturin synergistically increased TRPA1 expression in embryonic day (E)8 ganglia, but this effect was lost at E12. At E8, Ret+ nonpeptidergic neurons are specified in the trigeminal ganglion.
Corneal-derived factors increase TRPA1 expression in trigeminal nonpeptidergic neurons during their embryonic specification.
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