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Junzo Kinoshita, Noriaki Iwata, Hitomi Shimoda, Tomofumi Kimotsuki, Mitsuya Yasuda; Sildenafil-Induced Reversible Impairment of Rod and Cone Phototransduction in Monkeys. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(1):664-673. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-15985.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To investigate functional alteration of the retina induced by sildenafil in monkeys.
Sildenafil was administered intravenously to cynomolgus monkeys at dose levels of 0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg, and standard full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded. The rod and cone a-waves in response to high-intensity flashes were also analyzed by the a-wave fitting model (a-wave analysis). Additionally, the photopic negative responses were recorded.
Sildenafil at 3 mg/kg or more induced the following alterations in the standard full-field ERGs immediately after dosing: delayed b-wave in the rod response; delayed a-wave in the combined rod-cone response; and attenuated b-waves in the single-flash cone response and in the 30 Hz flicker. Additionally, the following changes were observed in the 10 mg/kg group: attenuated b-wave in the rod response; attenuated a-wave and delayed b-wave in the combined rod-cone response; delayed oscillatory potentials; and attenuated and delayed a-wave in the single-flash cone response. In the a-wave analysis immediately after dosing, sildenafil selectively decreased the sensitivity parameter (S) in the cone a-wave at 3 mg/kg, and in both the rod and cone a-waves at 10 mg/kg. The S value was highly correlated with plasma sildenafil concentration. The above changes fully recovered 24 hours after dosing.
Sildenafil produced reversible impairment of the rod and cone phototransduction in monkeys. Meanwhile, involvement of the postreceptoral retinal components was suggested. These findings contribute to the clarification of sildenafil-induced visual disturbances. It is suggested that the photoreceptors are predominantly, but not exclusively, affected in the retina of humans with sildenafil-induced visual disturbances.
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