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Alejandra Nieto, Huiyuan Hou, Sang Woong Moon, Michael J. Sailor, William R. Freeman, Lingyun Cheng; Surface Engineering of Porous Silicon Microparticles for Intravitreal Sustained Delivery of Rapamycin. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(2):1070-1080. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.14-15997.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To understand the relationship between rapamycin loading/release and surface chemistries of porous silicon (pSi) to optimize pSi-based intravitreal delivery system.
Three types of surface chemical modifications were studied: (1) pSi-COOH, containing 10-carbon aliphatic chains with terminal carboxyl groups grafted via hydrosilylation of undecylenic acid; (2) pSi-C12, containing 12-carbon aliphatic chains grafted via hydrosilylation of 1-dodecene; and (3) pSiO2-C8, prepared by mild oxidation of the pSi particles followed by grafting of 8-hydrocarbon chains to the resulting porous silica surface via a silanization.
The efficiency of rapamycin loading follows the order (micrograms of drug/milligrams of carrier): pSiO2-C8 (105 ± 18) > pSi-COOH (68 ± 8) > pSi-C12 (36 ± 6). Powder X-ray diffraction data showed that loaded rapamycin was amorphous and dynamic drug-release study showed that the availability of the free drug was increased by 6-fold (compared with crystalline rapamycin) by using pSiO2-C8 formulation (P = 0.0039). Of the three formulations in this study, pSiO2-C8-RAP showed optimal performance in terms of simultaneous release of the active drug and carrier degradation, and drug-loading capacity. Released rapamycin was confirmed with the fingerprints of the mass spectrometry and biologically functional as the control of commercial crystalline rapamycin. Single intravitreal injections of 2.9 ± 0.37 mg pSiO2-C8-RAP into rabbit eyes resulted in more than 8 weeks of residence in the vitreous while maintaining clear optical media and normal histology of the retina in comparison to the controls.
Porous silicon–based rapamycin delivery system using the pSiO2-C8 formulation demonstrated good ocular compatibility and may provide sustained drug release for retina.
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