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David Martín-Oliva, Sandra M. Martín-Guerrero, Ana M. Matia-González, Rosa M. Ferrer-Martín, María Martín-Estebané, María-Carmen Carrasco, Ana Sierra, José L. Marín-Teva, Ruth Calvente, Julio Navascués, Miguel A. Cuadros; DNA Damage, Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Activation, and Phosphorylated Histone H2AX Expression During Postnatal Retina Development in C57BL/6 Mouse. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(2):1301-1309. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-15828.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of DNA damage during postnatal development of the retina and the relationship between DNA damage and cell death.
DNA damage in the developing postnatal retina of C57BL/6 mice was assessed by determining the amounts of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), which is indicative of DNA oxidation and related to the formation of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs), and phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX), a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation was measured by ELISA and Western blotting. The location of γ-H2AX–positive and dying cells was determined by immunofluorescence and TUNEL assays.
Oxidative DNA damage was maintained at low levels during high PARP activation between postnatal days 0 (P0) and P7. Phosphorylated histone H2AX gradually increased between P0 and P14 and decreased thereafter. Phosphorylated histone H2AX–positive cells with cell death morphology or TUNEL positivity were more abundant at P7 than at P14.
Oxidative DNA damage in postnatal retina increases during development. It is low during the first postnatal week when PARP-1 activity is high but increases thereafter. The rise in DSBs when PARP activity is downregulated may be attributable to accumulated oxidative damage and SSBs. At P7 and P14, γ-H2AX–positive cells are repairing naturally occurring DNA damage, but some are dying (mostly at P7), probably due to an accumulation of irreparable DNA damage.
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