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Liqin Jiang, Keli Long, Frank Schaeffel, Xiangtian Zhou, Yibo Zheng, Huangfang Ying, Fan Lu, William K. Stell, Jia Qu; Effects of Dopaminergic Agents on Progression of Naturally Occurring Myopia in Albino Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus). Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(11):7508-7519. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-14294.
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Disruption of dopaminergic signaling has been implicated in the abnormalities of ocular development in albinism, and many experiments have shown that retinal dopamine is a major regulator of postnatal eye growth and myopia in animal models. Therefore, in the present study we investigated whether progressive myopia, which can occur in albino guinea pigs without experimental manipulation of visual conditions, is affected by dopaminergic agents.
Two-week-old albino guinea pigs, selected for being myopic (range refractive error [RE], −2 to −10 diopters [D]), received unilateral peribulbar injections of apomorphine (nonselective dopamine receptor agonist; 0, 7.5, 25, 75, 250, 750, and 2500 ng; n = 112), SKF38393 (D1-like agonist; 0, 10, 100, 1000 ng; n = 63), SCH23390 (D1-like antagonist; 0, 2500 ng; n = 27), quinpirole (D2-like agonist; 0, 10, 100, 1000 ng; n = 58), or sulpiride (D2-like antagonist; 0, 2500 ng; n = 24) once a day for four weeks. One noninjected group (n = 19) served as untreated control. Refractive states and axial dimensions of the eyes were measured without cycloplegia or general anesthetic, using eccentric infrared photoretinoscopy and A-scan ultrasonography, respectively, before treatment, and after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. The main drug effects were analyzed by paired t-test or 2-way repeated measures ANOVA, as required.
The naturally occurring progression of myopic RE was inhibited by apomorphine at relatively high doses (250 and 750 ng), SKF38393 at 100 ng (D1-like agonist), and sulpiride at 2500 ng (D2-like antagonist), but promoted by apomorphine at a lower dose (25 ng), quinpirole at 100 ng (D2-like agonist), and SCH23390 at 2500 ng (D1-like antagonist). All drugs affected primarily vitreous chamber depth, rather than anterior segment dimensions.
Our data suggest that the activation of D1-like receptors inhibits, whereas activation of D2-like receptors promotes, progressive myopia in this animal model. The robust effects of antagonists suggest that ocular dopamine receptors in these albinos may be in a chronic state of partial excitation. The precise location and identity of the receptors responsible for these effects remain to be determined.
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