Purchase this article with an account.
Puneet Singh Braich, Amarjot S Mann, Vikram Brar, Christopher T Leffler, Vikram Lal; Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Dyslipidemia: A Review. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(13):1301.
Download citation file:
© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To investigate the relationship between meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and dyslipidemia [total cholesterol (TC) ≥ 200 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) ≥ 130 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ≤ 40 mg/dL, triglycerides (TG) ≥ 150 mg/dL] in adult patients through a systematic review of the available data.
Data was gathered from three studies including our own. In all studies the participants had no prior diagnosis of dyslipidemia. Study-1, a case-control study of 60 symptomatic patients with MGD were compared to 63 age matched controls from the population. Study-2, a retrospective chart review of 93 patients with MGD were compared to 87 age matched comparisons from the same tertiary care center. Study-3, a retrospective chart review of 66 patients with MGD were compared to population data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). All data was gathered from 2009-2012.
In Study-1, dyslipidemia was found in 58.3% of cases and 6.3% of controls (P<0.01). Mean TC, LDL, and HDL were 210.8±4.4, 127.6±3.9, and 61.6±1.8 mg/dL, respectively, in cases and 162.9±3.1, 94.2±2.6, and 52.5±1.3 mg/dL, respectively, in controls. All differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). In Study-2, dyslipidemia was found in 65.7% of cases and 13.3% controls (P<0.01). Mean TC and LDL were 217.4±8.4 and122.4±5.7 mg/dL, respectively, in cases and 168.8±6.1, and 99.2±2.5 mg/dL, respectively, in controls. All differences were statistically significant (P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that in Study-1 and 2 patients with MGD were at 11-18% and 8-13% higher odds of having dyslipidemia. In Study-3, patients with MGD had a higher prevalence of dyslipidemia by elevated TC (67.4% vs. 45.1%, P <0.05), when compared to population controls. There was a smaller number of MGD patients with low HDL (6.5% vs. 15.7% , P<0.05). Patients with MGD ended up having lower TG than controls (15.2% vs 33.1%, P<0.05). The incidence of increased LDL was not statistically significant.
Patients with MGD with no history of dyslipidemia may have undiscovered abnormal serum cholesterol levels compared to controls of similar age without MGD. Pending large scale studies showing similar results, MGD may become a sign of undiagnosed dyslipidemia and ophthalmologists will have a role in early detection of an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
This PDF is available to Subscribers Only