April 2014
Volume 55, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   April 2014
Tear Film Flows Over the Whole Ocular Surface and in Tear Break-up
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Richard J Braun
    Dept of Mathematical Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE
    Institutefor Mathematics and its Applications, U of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN
  • Longfei Li
    Dept of Mathematical Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE
  • Nicholas Gewecke
    Dept of Mathematical Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE
  • Carolyn G Begley
    Optometry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN
  • Peter Ewen King-Smith
    Optometry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
  • Javed Siddique
    Mathematics, The Penn State University, York, PA
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships Richard Braun, None; Longfei Li, None; Nicholas Gewecke, None; Carolyn Begley, None; Peter King-Smith, None; Javed Siddique, None
  • Footnotes
    Support None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2014, Vol.55, 1979. doi:
  • Views
  • Share
  • Tools
    • Alerts
      This feature is available to authenticated users only.
      Sign In or Create an Account ×
    • Get Citation

      Richard J Braun, Longfei Li, Nicholas Gewecke, Carolyn G Begley, Peter Ewen King-Smith, Javed Siddique; Tear Film Flows Over the Whole Ocular Surface and in Tear Break-up. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(13):1979.

      Download citation file:

      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

  • Supplements

Purpose: The purpose of this project is to use mathematical models to visualize tear film (TF) flow while normalizing variables in different ways. The results are compared with experimental images of TF flow and tear breakup (TBU) to better predict local changes in tear film osmolarity and fluorescence during normal flows and in TBU.

Methods: Tear films of 10 subjects with a range of tear break-up times (3-45 sec) were simultaneously recorded using retroillumination (RI) and fluorescence at high resolution following the instillation of 2 microliters of 2% fluorescein (FL) dye. Additionally, video recordings of blinks and subsequent interblinks after installation of 1microliter of 5% FL were obtained. Math models were solved for local changes tear film thickness (h), osmolarity (c) and FL (f) concentrations inside the tear film for axisymmetric (circular or spot) breakup. FL concentration was converted to FL intensity I using the expression involving h and the full range of f as described by Nichols et al (IOVS 2012;53:5426--32).

Results: Computed results for I in the flows over the whole exposed ocular surface compare well with video recordings of FL intensity. The supply of new tear fluid was captured. The computed f and c are compared for spot breakup for different evaporation models. The model predicts locally elevated concentrations of osmolarity within areas of TBU as in previous work. The model predicts the FL intensity patterns very similar to the computed thickness and the observed experimental results. We summarize cases where c and f can differ significantly, and where I can deviate from the standard expected pattern which is important in experimental interpretation.

Conclusions: The models, which were developed using close comparisons to experimental data, match well with observed in vivo flows and helps explain dynamics of TF flows and TBU. Differences in dynamics of osmolarity and FL in the spot breakup case are explained.

Keywords: 486 cornea: tears/tear film/dry eye • 480 cornea: basic science  

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

Sign in or purchase a subscription to access this content. ×

You must be signed into an individual account to use this feature.