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Serge G Rosolen, Thomas Dulaurent, Frédéric Goulle, Thomas Boillot, Pierre F Isard, Phillippe Thomas, Thierry Azoulay, Serge A Picaud, Nicolas G Froger; Morphological, biometrical and biochemical susceptibilities in Eurasier dogs suspected to develop inherited glaucoma. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(13):2081.
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In both humans and dogs, the primary risk factor identified for optic nerve damage in glaucoma is an elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). This IOP increase can be cause by irido-corneal angle (ICA) abnormalities. In addition, oxidative stress (OS) processes are incriminated in the retinal ganglion cells dysfunction and optic nerve degeneration occurring during glaucoma. Recently, a suspected inherited form of glaucoma was identified in Eurasier dog (ED), a selected breed for which pedigrees are easily available. We therefore assessed the ICA morphological status, in addition to plasmatic levels of OS biomarkers in a cohort of ED in order to definite predictive markers of glaucoma using this dog model.
The production of an Eurasier family tree including 830 subjects from 26 generations allowed the assessment of a selection of 28 subjects by veterinarians from the Reseau Europeen d’Ophtalmologie Veterinaire et de Vision Animale (REOVVA). This cohort was composed in 4 groups: 7 young males and 9 young females (1 to 3-year old) versus 6 adult males and 6 adult females (4 to 8-year old). For all dogs, ophthalmological examinations were performed according to recommendations of the Association French Eye Panellists (AFEP/MHOC) eye scheme including ophthalmoscopy, tonometry, gonioscopy, biometry and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Measurements of plasmatic glutathion peroxidase activity (GPA) were also performed on all dogs.
Gonioscopic examinations revealed goniodysplasia in 79% of adult dogs (75% and 83% in males and females, respectively), and in 21% in young dogs. Moreover, elevated IOP levels were significantly correlated with a reduced global axial length, and surprisingly with an increased distance of the Schwalbe’s lens anterior capsule, in adult female (p=0.03). Finally, the GPA was significantly reduced (-61%) as compared to a randomized control group, constituted by a panel of different breed of dogs.
ICA abnormalities, associated with a reduction of antioxidant production, found in ED, suggest that this breed may constitute a canine model suitable for occurrence of glaucoma. This cohort will be use as sentinelle in order to perform a longitudinal monitoring of the disease development in these currently healthy dogs especially those presenting GD and their future puppies.
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