April 2014
Volume 55, Issue 13
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   April 2014
Opsin gene identification and evaluation of color vision in an albino capuchin monkey (Sapajus/Cebus sp)
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Leonardo Dutra Henriques
    Experimental Psychology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • Paulo R Goulart
    Experimental School of Primates, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Brazil
  • Julio C Oliveira
    Experimental School of Primates, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Brazil
  • Daniela M O Bonci
    Experimental Psychology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
    Israelite Study and Research Institute, Albert Einstein Israelite Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil
  • Givago S Souza
    Biological Science Institute, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Brazil
    Tropical Medicine Center, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Brazil
  • Luiz Carlos L Silveira
    Biological Science Institute, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Brazil
    Tropical Medicine Center, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Brazil
  • Olavo F Galvão
    Experimental School of Primates, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Brazil
  • Dora Fix Ventura
    Experimental Psychology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
    Israelite Study and Research Institute, Albert Einstein Israelite Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships Leonardo Henriques, None; Paulo Goulart, None; Julio Oliveira, None; Daniela Bonci, None; Givago Souza, None; Luiz Carlos Silveira, None; Olavo Galvão, None; Dora Ventura, None
  • Footnotes
    Support None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2014, Vol.55, 2364. doi:https://doi.org/
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      Leonardo Dutra Henriques, Paulo R Goulart, Julio C Oliveira, Daniela M O Bonci, Givago S Souza, Luiz Carlos L Silveira, Olavo F Galvão, Dora Fix Ventura; Opsin gene identification and evaluation of color vision in an albino capuchin monkey (Sapajus/Cebus sp). Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(13):2364. doi: https://doi.org/.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract
 
Purpose
 

Albinism is characterized by a deficit of melanin production, leading to reduced or absent pigmentation of some organs. Anatomic differences described for an Old World Monkey include lack of fovea, high concentration of ganglion cells on the expected foveal area and higher crossing of visual pathways, but it was not clear how those differences would affect vision and specifically color vision. We investigated color discrimination in an albino capuchin monkey (Sapajus sp, formerly Cebus) using a modified version of the Cambridge Colour Test and compared it with healthy Sapajus data. Behavioral phenotypic characterization was compared with opsin gene genotype.

 
Methods
 

The animal was trained via positive reinforcement (190-mg banana pellet) to touch over an approximately square target (5cm2) on a pseudoisochromatic display, independently of hue and position and then exposed to the test condition. For the test target chromaticity varied along 20 equidistant vectors, with background chromaticity fixed at the achromatic point of the CIE 1976 diagram (u’= 0.1977, v’= 0.4689). Target chromaticity varied between 1100x10-4 and 20x10-4 u’v’ units along each vector, following a staircase procedure. The orientation of the best-fit ellipse generated for the 20 threshold points guided phenotypic characterization (Fig. 1). Exons 3 and 5 of the X-linked opsin genes were analysed in order to infer the spectral sensitivity of M/L cones.

 
Results
 

The albino subject successfully learned the visual discrimination task, and produced color discrimination thresholds typical of deuteranopy (Fig. 2). The genetic analysis showed an SYT allele expressing an opsin with λ peak at 560-563nm, consistent with results described for other non-albino deuteranope Sapajus (Goulart et al., 2013).

 
Conclusions
 

There were no color vision or opsin gene differences between the albino variant and healthy deuteranopic subjects of Sapajus. Behavioral and genetic data obtained in this rare specimen will be complemented by ophthalmological and electrophysiological measures for a complete characterization of the animal's visual capabilities.

 
 
Figure 1. Ellipses for the discrimination thresholds of two deuteranope Sapajus, the albino subject from this work and a normal subject tested by Goulart et al. (2013).
 
Figure 1. Ellipses for the discrimination thresholds of two deuteranope Sapajus, the albino subject from this work and a normal subject tested by Goulart et al. (2013).
 
 
Figure 2. Color discrimination thresholds from albino subject and deuteranope monkeys of the Sapajus genera.
 
Figure 2. Color discrimination thresholds from albino subject and deuteranope monkeys of the Sapajus genera.
 
Keywords: 471 color vision • 533 gene/expression • 539 genetics  
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