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Markus Tschopp, Christoph Tappeiner, Ellinor Maurer, Kaspar Schürch, Pauline Sallin, Anna Jazwinska, Volker Enzmann; Activation of the TGF-beta and IGF signaling pathway during retina regeneration in adult zebrafish. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(13):2975.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an important model organism in eye research, amongst others due to its cone rich retina. In contrast to mammals, the retina regenerates even after severe damage. Analyzing the underlying signaling pathways may elucidate why regeneration occurs in the adult zebrafish. It has been shown that the TGF-beta and the IGF signaling pathway are necessary for heart or fin regeneration. In this study we investigate the activation of these two pathways during retina degeneration and subsequent regeneration.
Retina degeneration was induced by placing adult zebrafish in water containing 150 mg/l N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea for one hour. Thereafter, the time course of the activation of the TGF-beta and the IGF signaling pathway was monitored by immunohistological staining. Double staining was performed to identify the activated cell types. The involved signaling molecules were analyzed by in situ hybridization.
Immunohistological staining for the TGF-beta and the IGF signaling pathway was elevated during retina regeneration, starting at day three. Staining showed a maximum in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and co-localized with staining for Müller glial cells. In situ hybridization revealed a marked increase of TGF-beta 3 and IGF 2b expression in the INL and outer nuclear layer.
Both, the TGF-beta and the IGF signaling pathway are activated during retina regeneration in the adult zebrafish. This activation is also observed in the regeneration of the heart and fin and may imply a shared mechanism in the regeneration of these three organs.
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