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Chung-Jung Chiu, Min-Lee Chang, Fang Fang Zhang, Tricia Li, Gary Gensler, Molly Schleicher, Allen Taylor; Major American dietary patterns are related to risk of age-related macular degeneration. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(13):3484.
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We hypothesized that major American dietary patterns and differences in specific nutrient intakes, including vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, zinc, lutein/zeaxanthin, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), within the context of the patterns are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk.
8,103 eyes from 4,088 eligible participants in the baseline Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were classified into control (n=2,739), early AMD (n=4,599), and advanced AMD (n=765) according to the AREDS AMD Classification System. Using food consumption data collected by a 90-item food frequency questionnaire, two major dietary patterns, prudent and Western patterns, were identified by factor analysis based on 37 food groups. Applying the generalized estimating equation in a logistic regression, we tested our hypothesis by relating the two patterns and specific nutrients to AMD risk.
The “prudent pattern” was characterized by higher intake of vegetables, legumes, fruit, whole grains, and the “Western pattern” was characterized by higher intake of red meat, processed meat, high-fat dairy products, French fries, refined grains. After multivariate adjustment, higher quintiles of the prudent and Western pattern scores were strongly associated with reduced and increased risk of AMD, respectively. For early AMD, the odds ratio (OR) comparing the highest to lowest quintile of the prudent pattern score was ORE5P=0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59-0.91; Ptrend=0.01), and the OR comparing the highest to lowest quintile of the Western pattern score was ORE5W=1.56 (95% CI: 1.18-2.06; Ptrend=0.01). For advanced AMD, the ORA5P was 0.38 (95% CI: 0.27-0.54; Ptrend<0.0001), and the ORA5W was 3.70 (95% CI: 2.31-5.92; Ptrend<0.0001). Our data also suggested benefit from higher dietary intakes of vitamin C, lutein/zeaxanthin, and beta-carotene, especially in the context of the Western pattern. In the context of the two major patterns, we did not observe a relationship between intake of vitamin E, zinc, DHA or EPA and AMD risk.
This cross-sectional study indicates that diet plays an important role in the development of AMD and that the risk for AMD can be diminished by eating a prudent diet.
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