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Padmaja Sankaridurg, Brien A Holden, Leslie A Donovan, Chi-ho To, Wei Han Chua, Li Li, Xiang Chen; An Annual Rate of Myopic Progression Model for Asian children. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(13):3629.
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High levels of myopia are associated with increased risk of cataract, glaucoma, retinal damage and permanent vision loss. Data from East Asian countries indicate an increasing prevalence of ≥ -6.00D myopia. We calculated the annual progression rate of myopia for a large group of Asian children aged 6 to 16 wearing single vision spectacles(SPL) or contact lenses(CL) to determine the influence of age and vision correction device. This model has value in identifying children at risk and as a baseline for evaluating the ability of myopia control procedures to reduce the rate of progress of myopia.
Data for annual progression of myopia from Asian(mostly Chinese) children aged 6-16 years and wearing either single vision SPL(n=633) or single vision silicone hydrogel CL(n=55) from prospective clinical studies in China, Hong Kong and Singapore. Studies were conducted from 2002 to 2012. Spherical equivalent refractive error was measured using cycloplegic autorefraction at 12 monthly intervals. One eye used at random in this analysis. Annual progression of refractive error based on baseline age was plotted, and compared, for SPL and CL wearing eyes and equations derived for rate of refractive error progression based on age. Significance was set at p<0.05.
Significant correlations existed (p<0.001) between baseline age and annual progression with progression decreasing with increasing age(for SPL: 6 yr: -1.02±0.41D; 10 yrs: -0.63±0.42; 13 yrs: -0.47±0.32D). The sample was limited past 13 yrs. Average annual progressions were estimated (Fig 1). Age-specific annual progression showed no difference between SPL and CL wearing eyes (p=0.384). Number of eyes showing nil progression was ≤1% for both groups at 7 yrs of age, 7.6% for both at 10 yrs and 10% for CL and 13.5% for SPL wearing eyes at 13 yrs. An eye with -0.50D of myopia at 6 yrs of age and continuing to progress was predicted to reach -6.00D at approximately 14.3 yrs. Effect of parental myopia on progression could not be determined as information was available only for limited sample however very few children had non myopic parents.
The rate of progression of myopia was strongly associated with age; the younger the age, the greater the progression and the likelihood of high myopia. There were similar rates of progression for SPL and CL. Myopia control strategies are especially urgent for children who become myopic at a younger age.
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