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Mariko Sasaki, Ryo Kawasaki, Sophie Rogers, Ryan Man, Katsumasa Itakura, Jing Xie, Victoria Flood, Kazuo Tsubota, Ecosse Luc Lamoureux, Jie Jin Wang; Dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid and diabetic retinopathy in well-controlled diabetes. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(13):4392.
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To assess the associations of dietary intake levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with well-controlled diabetes.
Patients with diabetes were recruited from a tertiary eye hospital in Melbourne. After excluding non-responders to a dietary survey or patients without optimal fundus image quality, 434 patients (median age; 66 years old) were included for this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. PUFA (combined omega-3 and -6) were adjusted for total energy intake (kcals) using the residuals method. The association between PUFA intake quartile and DR was assessed using logistic regression models and is expressed as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
After adjusting age, gender, HbA1c (%) and duration of diabetes (years), well-controlled diabetic patients (HbA1c <= 7%, n=137) in the 4th intake quartile of PUFA were less likely to have DR, compared to the 1st quartile (OR 0.18, 95% CI: 0.05-0.59, p=0.005). A significant trend of decreasing ORs for DR associated with increasing PUFA intake quartiles was noted (p for trend = 0.017). There was no significant association between PUFA intake and DR among poorly-controlled diabetic patients (HbA1c < 7%, n=281).
We found in this sample that increase in PUFA intake could be associated with reduced DR in well-controlled diabetic patients. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the observed association, and if so, reveal the mechanisms of the protective effect of PUFA on diabetic complications.
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