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Ellen E Freeman, Marie-Josée Aubin, Slim Haddad, Hanen Harrabi, Maria Victoria Zunzunegui; Visual difficulty and employment status in the world. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(13):4575.
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Using a world-wide, population-based dataset, we sought to examine the relationship between visual difficulty and employment status. We hypothesized that people with poor vision would have low employment rates.
The World Health Survey was conducted in 70 countries throughout the world in 2003 using a random, multi-stage, stratified, cluster sampling design. Far vision was assessed by asking about the level of difficulty in seeing and recognizing a person you know across the road (i.e. from a distance of about 20 meters). Responses included none, mild, moderate, severe, or extreme/unable. Participants were asked about their current job, and if they were not working, the reason why (unable to find job, ill health, homemaker, studies, unpaid work, other). The main occupation in the last 12 months was obtained. The outcome had three categories: working, not working due to an inability to find a job, not working due to ill health. Multinomial regression was used to adjust for demographic and health variables. We accounted for the complex survey design in all analyses.
Of those who wanted to work, 79% of those with severe visual difficulty and 64% of those with extreme visual difficulty were actually working. People who had moderate, severe, or extreme visual difficulty had a higher odds of not working due to an inability to find a job and of not working due to ill health after adjusting for demographic and health factors (P<0.05).
As the major causes of visual impairment in the world are uncorrected refractive error and cataract, countries are losing substantial labor productivity by failing to provide for the vision health needs of their citizens and failing to help them integrate into the workforce.
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