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Guiqiu Zhao, Qian Wang, Qiang Xu, Jing Lin, Choroidal Melanoma; Analysis of factors related to invasion and metastasis in Choroidal Melanoma. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(13):87.
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To explore the clinical and pathological implications of connexin 43(Cx43), epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), PI3K, CTGF, HIF-1α, iNOS, COX-2, and VEGF expression in invasion and metastasis in choroidal melanoma and hence to determine their relations with malignant features.
Forty-four samples of choroidal melanoma and 15 samples of melanocytic nevi of the eyelid were collected. Immunohistochemistry SP methods were used to examine the expression of Cx43, E-cadherin, PI3K, CTGF, HIF-1α, iNOS, COX-2, and VEGF in these samples. Comparisons among groups were processed utilizing SPSS 13.0 software.
The positive expression rates of the investigated factors (Cx43, PI3K, CTGF, HIF-1α, iNOS, COX-2, and VEGF) were significantly higher in the choroidal melanoma group compared to those in the eyelid nevi group. Positive rates of E-cadherin in choroidal melanomas and benign pigmented nevus tissues were significantly different at 43.18% and 87.50% respectively. The positive expression rates of PI3K, HIF-1α, iNOS, COX-2, and VEGF were associated with the tumor size, while Cx43 and HIF-1α were associated with pathological type. Significant overexpression of all factors coupled with the reduction of E-cadherin expression were associated with the invasion to the sclera; there were significant differences between the two groups with and without scleral invasion (P<0.05). The expression of HIF-1α, iNOS, and COX-2 were significantly associated with the expression of VEGF (r=0.9429, 1, 0.9857); the expression of COX-2 was significantly associated with the expression of iNOS (r=0.9857); the expression of HIF-1α was significantly associated with the expression of COX-2 (r=0.9857); the expression of HIF-1α was significantly associated with the expression of iNOS (r=0. 9429).
The increased expression of Cx43, PI3K, CTGF, HIF-1α, iNOS, COX-2, and VEGF in combination with the decreased expression of E-cadherin are involved with the processes of invasion, metastasis, and stimulated tumor growth in Choroidal Melanoma and may contribute to the development of this disease.
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