June 2015
Volume 56, Issue 7
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2015
The Prevalence of Vitreomacular Adhesion in Patients 40 Years and Older- VAST Study
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Julie Rodman
    Optometry, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL
  • Diana Shechtman
    Optometry, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL
  • Jay Haynie
    Retina and Macula Specialists, Tacoma, WA
  • Larry Alexander
    Not Applicable, McKinney, TX
  • Leo Semes
    Optometry, UAB School of Optometry, Birmingham, AL
  • William Jones
    Jones Eye Care, Albuquerque, NM
  • Steven Ferrucci
    Sepulveda VAMC, Sepulveda, CA
  • Ava K Bittner
    Optometry, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL
  • Murray Ocular Oncology and Retina
    Murray Ocular Oncology, Miami, FL
  • Schaeffer Eye Center
    Schaeffer Eye Center, Birmingham, AL
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships Julie Rodman, Carl Zeiss (F), Optovue (F), Thrombogenics (F); Diana Shechtman, Carl Zeiss (F), Nova Southeastern University (F), Optovue (F), Thrombogenics (F); Jay Haynie, None; Larry Alexander, None; Leo Semes, None; William Jones, None; Steven Ferrucci, None; Ava Bittner, None; Murray Ocular Oncology and Retina, None; Schaeffer Eye Center, None
  • Footnotes
    Support None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2015, Vol.56, 1226. doi:
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      Julie Rodman, Diana Shechtman, Jay Haynie, Larry Alexander, Leo Semes, William Jones, Steven Ferrucci, Ava K Bittner, Murray Ocular Oncology and Retina, Schaeffer Eye Center, Front Range Eye Associates, Pacific University College of Optometry, Indiana University College of Optometry, Retina Macula Specialists of Miami, Clayton Eye Center, Fort Lauderdale Eye Institute, Center for Retina and Macular Disease; The Prevalence of Vitreomacular Adhesion in Patients 40 Years and Older- VAST Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(7 ):1226.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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A prospective, cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence of vitreomacular adhesion (VMA) in a diverse group of subjects over 40 years of age. Secondary analysis included correlation between VMA and gender, ethnicity, and refractive error.


Preliminary findings for this study include data from a subset of 1475 eyes of 760 subjects (60.3% females) with a mean age of 57 years (range 40-91; SD 9.4). The refractive status indicated that 6.98% were emmetropes, 32% were myopes, and 61% were hyperopes. For subjects reporting ethnicity, 45.7% were white, 35.6% were black, 12.5% were Hispanic, 6.2% were Asian and/or mixed decent. Subjects were classified into groups by 10-year age categories (e.g., 40-49 years). A comprehensive eye examination, including medical history, amsler grid testing, ophthalmoscopy and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) was performed on each subject. The status of the posterior vitreoretinal interface was evaluated by a team of independent, masked readers, who determined the presence or absence of VMA on SD-OCT. Classification was done according to the rubric established by “The International Vitreomacular Traction Study (IVTS) Group.”


Vitreomacular adhesion was present in 40.6% of eyes. When comparing age categories, VMA was most prevalent in the 50-59 year old age group (35.56%). With advancing age, the percentage of patients with VMA decreases (3.34% in patients 80-95 years of age). Prevalence of VMA was associated with ethnicity, as patients of Afro-American descent were less likely to have VMA than Caucasians (p=0.0094). Neither myopic or hyperopic (p=0.2819) refractive error nor gender (p=0.145) seemed to play a significant role in the prevalence of VMA. Data collection is ongoing to increase the sample size, especially in eyes with various maculopathies; those findings will also be analyzed and presented.


Vitreomacular adhesion was present in more than a third of eyes that represented a wide range of demographic and ocular characteristics. Patients who were of older age and/or Afro-American descent were significantly less likely to have VMA.


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