June 2015
Volume 56, Issue 7
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2015
Digital self-assessment application for identifying ADHD symptoms
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Oren Yehezkel
    Scientific, Eyekon E.R.D Ltd, Ramat-Gan, Israel
  • Anna Sterkin
    Scientific, Eyekon E.R.D Ltd, Ramat-Gan, Israel
  • Maria Lev
    Scientific, Eyekon E.R.D Ltd, Ramat-Gan, Israel
  • Uri Polat
    Scientific, Eyekon E.R.D Ltd, Ramat-Gan, Israel
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships Oren Yehezkel, Eyekon ERD (E); Anna Sterkin, Eyekon ERD Ltd (E); Maria Lev, Eyekon ERD Ltd (E); Uri Polat, Eyekon ERD Ltd (P)
  • Footnotes
    Support None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2015, Vol.56, 2215. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      Oren Yehezkel, Anna Sterkin, Maria Lev, Uri Polat; Digital self-assessment application for identifying ADHD symptoms. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(7 ):2215.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose: ADHD is a common neurobehavioral disorder. ADHD is diagnosed by clinicians using subjective tools, sometimes supported by a computerized test. However, since this diagnosis requires visiting a clinic and is affected by external factors such as intelligence and fatigue, many cases remain undiagnosed through adulthood. There is a societal burden associated with undiagnosed ADHD, creating a need for objective tools for ADHD preliminary self-assessment, prompting seeking professional clinical diagnosis if relevant.<br /> Here we aimed at testing whether we can manipulate spatial and temporal stimulation to identify ADHD symptoms in adults. To this end, we used a short, self-administered tool based on dynamic crowded visual stimulation to identify ADHD symptoms. Various studies demonstrated the usefulness of crowded conditions for measuring visual performance in aging adults and children.

Methods: Measurements using a prototype dynamic digital assessment tool, currently developed by GlassesOff™, on smartphones, which reliably measure functional near visual acuity (VA), were compared between diagnosed-ADHD and control groups: 24 ADHD subjects (aged 16-28 years, with an ADHD diagnosis performed by a neurologist or psychiatrist) and 18 controls (aged 20-30 years), all corrected to normal vision (worst binocular VA 0.04 logMAR). Stimuli consisted of matrices composed of 25 letters "E" (5×5), each with a randomly chosen orientation having 4 options. Two variations of inter-letter-spacing within the matrix were used (0.4 and 1 letter size). Participants were requested to identify the orientation of the central letter. VA thresholds were determined using a staircase measuring the minimal detectable letter size, under crowding conditions and the stimulus presentation ranged from 34 to 120 msec.

Results: Despite normal VA on the clinical static ETDRS chart, our self-administered test showed a large and significant VA reduction in ADHD subjects compared with controls: 62, 79, and 64% for 34, 60, and 120 msec, respectively, equivalent to about 2 ETDRS lines. Similar results were obtained for 0.4-letter spacing.

Conclusions: Our self-administered dynamic digital tool may be used for objective assessment of ADHD symptoms. We suggest that under-development of visual functions, which is present in children under regular conditions, persist in adults with ADHD symptoms and that this becomes apparent under spatial and temporal loading conditions.


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