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Sandra M Ferreira, Claudia Gabriela Reides, Romina Mayra Lasagni Vitar, Ricardo Brunzini, Fabian S Lerner, Susana Llesuy; Changes in the antioxidant status of brain structures in a rat model of glaucoma.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(7 ):3671.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Glaucoma is usually considered as an eye disease, but also damages structures in the brain. The goals of this study were to establish the antioxidant status of brain visual structures in an experimental rat model of glaucoma and to evaluate the possible protective role of lipoic acid in oxidative damage.
Episcleral venous occlusion model in rats (Wistar, 3 months age) was used. Rats were divided in four groups (n=24): glaucoma (G), glaucoma treated with lipoic acid 50 mg/kg i.p. (LG), control received a sham procedure (C), control treated with lipoic acid 50 mg/kg i.p. (LC). 7 days after surgery rats were euthanized. Brains were removed and lateral geniculate nucleous and visual cortex (left and right) were separated. These parameters were evaluated: thioredoxin reductase (TR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), lipidperoxidation markers (TBARS), non-enzymatic antioxidants (TRAP). One-way ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey test were used.
TR diminished 37% in left cortex (p<0.05), 31% in right cortex (p<0.05) and 46% in geniculate (p<0.01) in G vs C (C (nmol/min.mg protein): left cortex 12.0±0.8, right cortex 13.0±0.5, geniculate 14.0±0.5). GPx increased 24% in left cortex (p<0.05), 26% in right cortex (p<0.05) and 79% in geniculate (p<0.01) in G vs C (C (nmol/min.mg protein): left cortex 7.1±0.4 p<0.05, right cortex 7.9±0.5, geniculate 5.7±0.6). TRAP decreased in G vs C: 41% in left cortex (p<0.01), 38% in right cortex (p< 0.05) and 67% in geniculate (p<0.01) (C (nmol/mg protein): left cortex 2.20±0.07, right cortex 2.28±0.08, geniculate 9.50±0.50). No significant differences in enzymes activities and TRAP were found in LC vs C or LG vs G. TBARS increased in G vs C: 41 % in left cortex (p<0.05), 53% in right cortex (p<0.05) and 61% in geniculate (p<0.01) (C (pmol/mg protein): left cortex 2.57±0.34, right cortex 2.74±0.28, geniculate 1.48±0.21). TBARS decreased in LG vs G: 38% in left cortex (p<0.05), 28% in right cortex (p<0.05) and 46% in geniculate (p<0.05) (G (pmol/mg protein): left cortex 3.70±0.20 right cortex 4.19±0.21, geniculate 2.39±0.19).
The decrease in non-enzymatic antioxidants, the increase in prooxidants and in the GPx activity could have been a consequence of an increase in oxidative processes in glaucoma. Lipoic acid could be used as a protective therapy for reducing oxidative damage in brain structures.
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