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Chung-Jung Chiu, Min-Lee Chang, Tricia Li, Gary Gensler, Allen Taylor; American Minor Dietary Patterns and Age-related Macular Degeneration. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(7 ):3759. doi: https://doi.org/.
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To evaluate the relationships between American minor dietary patterns and age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
8,103 eyes from 4,088 eligible participants in the baseline Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were classified into control (n=2,739), early AMD (n=4,599), and advanced AMD (n=765) according to the AREDS AMD Classification System. Using food consumption data collected by a 90-item food frequency questionnaire, eight minor dietary patterns were characterized by principle component analysis based on 37 food groups. Applying the generalized estimation equation in logistic models, we related the eight patterns to the prevalence of AMD.
The eight minor dietary patterns were named (characterized by) Steak (potatoes, butter or margarine, red meats, gravies), Breakfast (cold breakfast cereal, fruit juices, whole grains, fruit), Salad (salad dressings, green leafy vegetables, tomatoes), Caribbean (poultry, seafood, organ meats, rice, low-fat dairy products), Pizza (pizza, refined grains, French fries), Peanut (peanuts, sweets and desserts, snacks, high-fat dairy products), Alcohol (liquor, beer, wine), and Beverage (non-dairy creamer, coffee or tea, high energy drinks) patterns. None of the eight patterns was associated with the risk for early AMD. For advanced AMD, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) comparing the highest to lowest quintile of the pattern score was 1.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24 to 2.41; Ptrend=0.02) for the Steak pattern, 0.60 (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.82; Ptrend=0.004) for the Breakfast pattern, 0.64 (95% CI: 0.47 to 0.89; Ptrend=0.009) for the Caribbean pattern, and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.46 to 0.89; Ptrend=0.03) for the Peanut pattern. The other four patterns were not associated with advanced AMD risk.
Our dietary pattern analysis indicates that some foods that have not been recognized previously may be protective against AMD and should be examined carefully, and a diet characterized by higher intake of leafy and salad vegetables alone may be insufficient to provide optimal protection against AMD. These results, in conjunction with our previous analysis of major American dietary patterns, suggest that a diet consisted of various healthy foods may be the optimal diet for reducing AMD risk.
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