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Stephen C Pflugfelder, Cintia S De Paiva, Dan B Jones, Quianta Moore, Shani Corbiere, Joseph Petrosino, Diane Smith, Michael E Stern, Nadim Ajami; Mucosal microbiome in Sjögren Syndrome. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(7 ):4068.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To compare the ocular, oral and fecal microbiome in patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) with control subjects
Conjunctival, tongue and fecal samples were obtained from 10 patients with primary SS meeting revised ACR criteria and controls (normal eyes and fecal samples, and tongue samples from patients with rosacea). Severity of oral and ocular surface disease was graded. Conjunctival goblet cell density was counted in impression cytology. 16s ribosomal DNA gene sequencing was performed by 454 (conjunctival) and MiSeq sequencing and sequences were mapped to microbial databases. Relative abundance of phyla and genera and alpha and beta diversity of observed OTUs between groups were compared.
A low abundance ocular surface microbiome consisting of core phyla Actinobacteria,, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes was identified. There were no differences in alpha or beta diversity between normal and dry eyes; however, there was greater abundance of Firmicutes in the SS group. Compared to control, alpha diversity was greater in the tongue and reduced in the stool in the SS group. Between group differences in relative abundance were observed with greater Streptococcus and Hemophilus and reduced Neisseria and Fusobacterium genera in the SS tongue and greater abundance of Blautia, Escherichia/Shigella, and Streptococcus and reduced Akkermansia, Subdoligranulum, Faecalibacterium and Prevotella in the SS stool. Distinct clustering of OTUs was seen in SS stool and subjects with most severe clinical severity scores had the least diversity of observed OTUs in the stool.
Minimal differences in abundance and diversity were found in the SS ocular microbiome. In contrast, SS stool showed a less diverse microbiome that contained a greater number of inflammatogenic and lower number of homeostatic flora.
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