June 2015
Volume 56, Issue 7
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2015
Intermediate uveitis: Pattern of etiology, complications, treatment and outcome in a tertiary academic center
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Thomas Ness
    Eye Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
  • Daniel Boehringer
    Eye Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
  • Sonja Heinzelmann
    Eye Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships Thomas Ness, Abbvie (C), Allergan (C), Novartis (C), Sanofi (C), Santen (C); Daniel Boehringer, None; Sonja Heinzelmann, Abbvie (C), Allergan (C), Sanofi (C), Santen (C)
  • Footnotes
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Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2015, Vol.56, 863. doi:
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      Thomas Ness, Daniel Boehringer, Sonja Heinzelmann; Intermediate uveitis: Pattern of etiology, complications, treatment and outcome in a tertiary academic center. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(7 ):863.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Patients with intermediate uveitis (IU) represent a heterogenous group characterized by a wide spectrum of etiologies and regional differences. The aim of the study was to analyze the characteristics of patients with IU seen in an academic center in Germany.


We conducted a retrospective analysis of the clinical records of all patients with intermediate uveitis referred to the Eye Center, University of Freiburg from 2007 to 2014. Diagnosis was established according to the SUN criteria. Data analyzed were etiology, demographics, complications, treatment and final visual acuity.


In the period 159 patients with intermediate uveitis were identified. The median age at diagnosis was 35 years. The majority was female (64%) and the mean duration of IU was 6.1 years (range 1 month - 35 years). Etiology of IU was idiopathic in 59%. Multiple sclerosis (MS) (20%) and sarcoidosis (10%) were frequent systemic causes of IU. In 11 % several other etiologies including infectious diseases (tuberculosis, borreliosis) or immune mediated conditions (e.g. after vaccination) were found. The pattern of complications included macular edema (36%), cataract (24%), secundary glaucoma (7%), and epiretinal membrane formation (19%). Periphlebitis was more frequent with multiple sclerosis. Treatment comprised local and systemic steroids, immunosupressive agents, biologics, and surgery. Last visual acuity was better than 20/25 in 75 % of the eyes.


In a german acedemic center most cases of IU were idiopathic or associated with MS or sarcoidosis. In contrast to other countries infectious cases were rare. Even with a long duration and despite of numerous complications the overall visual prognosis is favorable.


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