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Isabelle Schrauwen, Szabolcs Szelinger, Ashley L. Siniard, Jason J. Corneveaux, Ahmet Kurdoglu, Ryan Richholt, Matt De Both, Ivana Malenica, Shanker Swaminathan, Sampathkumar Rangasamy, Neil Kulkarni, Saunder Bernes, Jeffrey Buchhalter, Keri Ramsey, David W. Craig, Vinodh Narayanan, Matthew J. Huentelman; A De Novo Mutation in TEAD1 Causes Non–X-Linked Aicardi Syndrome. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(6):3896-3904. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-16261.
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Aicardi syndrome (AIC) is a congenital neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by infantile spasms, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and chorioretinal lacunae. Variation in phenotype and disease severity is well documented, but chorioretinal lacunae represent the most constant pathological feature. Aicardi syndrome is believed to be an X-linked–dominant disorder occurring almost exclusively in females, although 46, XY males with AIC have been described. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic factors and pathways involved in AIC.
We performed exome/genome sequencing of 10 children diagnosed with AIC and their parents and performed RNA sequencing on blood samples from nine cases, their parents, and unrelated controls.
We identified a de novo mutation in autosomal gene TEAD1, expressed in the retina and brain, in a patient with AIC. Mutations in TEAD1 have previously been associated with Sveinsson's chorioretinal atrophy, characterized by chorioretinal degeneration. This demonstrates that TEAD1 mutations can lead to different chorioretinal complications. In addition, we found that altered expression of genes associated with synaptic plasticity, neuronal development, retinal development, and cell cycle control/apoptosis is an important underlying potential pathogenic mechanism shared among cases. Last, we found a case with skewed X inactivation, supporting the idea that nonrandom X inactivation might be important in AIC.
We expand the phenotype of TEAD1 mutations, demonstrate its importance in chorioretinal complications, and propose the first putative pathogenic mechanisms underlying AIC. Our data suggest that AIC is a genetically heterogeneous disease and is not restricted to the X chromosome, and that TEAD1 mutations may be present in male patients.
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