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Mayuri Bhargava, Carol Y. Cheung, Ecosse L. Lamoureux, Huang Lei, Yingfeng Zheng, Lavanya Raghavan, Tin Aung, Jie J. Wang, Paul Mitchell, Tien Y. Wong; Prevalence And Risk Factors Of Retinopathy Signs In Persons Without Diabetes: The Singapore Indian Eye Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):599.
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To describe the prevalence and risk factors of retinopathy in an Asian population without diabetes
A population-based, cross-sectional survey of 3,400 Indians (75.6% response) aged 40 to 80 years residing in Singapore was conducted, the Singapore Indian Eye Study (SINDI).Retinopathy was assessed from retinal photographs by trained graders using modified Airlie House Classification System. Risk factors were assessed from standardized interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory investigations. Diabetes mellitus was defined as random glucose≥11.1mmol/L, use of diabetic medication or a physician diagnosis of diabetes.
There were 2,171 persons (63.9 % of SINDI participants) without diabetes for this analysis. The age-standardized prevalence of retinopathy was 5.6% (n = 114; 95% confidence interval [CI],4.4-6.3). There was no significant difference in retinopathy prevalence between males (6.4%) and females (4.5%). Among the non-diabetic persons with retinopathy, 97.4% (n =111) had signs of minimal to mild retinopathy while 2.6% (n=3) had moderate to severe retinopathy. After adjusting for age, gender, glycosylated hemoglobin and systolic blood pressure levels, higher hemoglobin A1C levels (odds ratio [OR], 1.64; 95% CI, 1.22-2.21; per % increase)and systolic blood pressure (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03; per 10 mm Hg increase) remained significantly associated with the presence of retinopathy lesions in persons without diabetes.
One in twenty persons without diabetes in this Asian Indian population had retinopathy signs. The risk factors of non-diabetic retinopathy were hypertension and glycosylated hemoglobin showed a linear association with retinopathy.Our findings are consistent with studies on white and Asian Malay populations, indicating that these retinopathy signs have similar modifiable risk factors as those seen in diabetic retinopathy.
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