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Jennyfer Zerbib, Cecile DelCourt, Salomon Y. Cohen, Jose A. Sahel, Mélanie Le Goff, Nathalie Puche, Nicolas Leveziel, Margaret Sterkers, Eric H. Souied; Analysis Of Environmental Factors In A French Population With Exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):88.
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Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the first leading cause of blindness among older persons in developed countries. Identification of modifiable risk factors is of major importance for the understanding of the origins of the disorder and for establishing strategies to prevent AMD.The purpose of our epidemiologic study is to analyze environmental factors of exudative AMD in a French case-control study.
1108 patients with exudative AMD and 335 controls have been recruited in 3 ophthalmologic centres in Paris. Informations about lifestyle, medical history, dietary habits were collected through face to face interview. Associations of potential risk factors with exudative AMD were estimated using logistic regression, with adjustment for age and gender.
Cigarette smoking was found to be significantly associated with AMD (OR=2.57 in current smokers versus never smokers, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.50-5.07, p=0.004). Among former smokers, those have stopped smoking less than 20 years before inclusion were also at increased risk for exudative AMD (OR=1.93, 95% CI: 1.22-3.06), while those having stopped since more than 20 years had similar risk to never smokers (OR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.50-1.26). Consumption of oils rich in omega 3 fatty acids was associated with a reduced risk of exudative AMD (OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.45-0.89, p=0.01), as well as a high consumption of fruits (OR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.88, p=0.03). A high dietary intake of fish was not significantly associated with the disease. Hypertension and body mass index were associated with increased risk for exudative AMD (OR= 1.47, 95% CI: 1.08-2.01, p=0.02 and OR=1.04 for 1 kg/m2, 95% CI: 1.00-1.08, p=0.02 respectively).
This French case-control study confirms the increased risk for exudative AMD with cigarette smoking, hypertension, body mass index. Furthermore, we describe here an inverse relation of exudative AMD with consumption of oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids and fruits.
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