March 2012
Volume 53, Issue 14
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   March 2012
The Effects Of Bupivacaine Injection And Nitric Oxide In Rabbit Extraocular Muscles
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • huseyin gursoy
    ophthalmology,
    Eskisehir Osmangazi University, eskisehir, Turkey
  • Burak Bilgin
    ophthalmology,
    Eskisehir Osmangazi University, eskisehir, Turkey
  • Hikmet Basmak
    ophthalmology,
    Eskisehir Osmangazi University, eskisehir, Turkey
  • Mete Ozkurt
    physiology,
    Eskisehir Osmangazi University, eskisehir, Turkey
  • Nese Tuncel
    physiology,
    Eskisehir Osmangazi University, eskisehir, Turkey
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  huseyin gursoy, None; Burak Bilgin, None; Hikmet Basmak, None; Mete Ozkurt, None; Nese Tuncel, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  TUBITAK 111S019
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science March 2012, Vol.53, 1007. doi:
  • Views
  • Share
  • Tools
    • Alerts
      ×
      This feature is available to authenticated users only.
      Sign In or Create an Account ×
    • Get Citation

      huseyin gursoy, Burak Bilgin, Hikmet Basmak, Mete Ozkurt, Nese Tuncel; The Effects Of Bupivacaine Injection And Nitric Oxide In Rabbit Extraocular Muscles. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(14):1007.

      Download citation file:


      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

      ×
  • Supplements
Abstract

Purpose: : Chemical agents are alternative treatment modalities in strabismus cases. Bupivacaine injection into the extraocular muscles have been tried to strengthen the weaker muscles. Muscle regeneration is one of the main steps observed during the bupivacaine induced extraocular muscle hypertrophy. Nitric oxide (NO) was found to play a key role in muscle regeneration. Accordingly, we aimed to investigate the effects of bupivacaine injection into the superior rectus (SR) muscle of the rabbits and its interaction with oral isosorbide dinitrate (ISD), which is a NO donor.

Methods: : Left eyes of 24 adult male New Zealand albino rabbits were studied. In situ muscle force was measured under general anesthesia with intramuscular 50 mg/kg ketamine, and 10 mg/kg xylazine. For each contractile experiment, one SR muscle was used per animal. The tendon of the SR muscle was isolated under surgical microscope, tied with 4/0 silk suture, and cut from the sclera. This suture was later used to attach the tendon to the isometric force transducer. Bipolar contact electrodes were positioned on the distal third of the muscles. SR muscle single twitch and tetanic contractions were tested with direct electrical stimulation at maximal stimulation. The rabbits were allocated into three groups; 8 rabbits per each. Group 1 was the control group in which, the contractile experiment was performed without any drug applications. In group 2, intramuscular bupivacaine injection at the dose of 2.5 mg in 0.5 ml. was performed into the SR muscle of each animal and after 21 days contractile experiment was done. In group 3; in addition to the procedures performed in group 2; oral ISD was given 20 mg/day everyday for 21 days prior to the contractile experiment. Statistical analyses was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test (p<0.05=significant).

Results: : The maximal electrical stimulation intensity was found to be 15 mV and 75 Hz. The single twitch tension was 0.66±0.18, 2.0±1.22 and 2.11±1.08 mN in group 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The single twitch tension in both group 2 and 3 was significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05). The tetanic tension at maximum stimulation was 6.86±3.23, 12.45±10.98 and 16.47±7.66 mN in group 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The highest values were obtained in group 3. The difference between group 1 and 2, failed to reach a statistical significance, while the difference between group 1 and 3 was statistically significant.

Conclusions: : Intramuscular bupivacaine injection increased the SR muscle tension development in rabbits. ISD has potentialized bupivacaine effect. Further studies are required to support the interaction between intramuscular bupivacaine injections and NO donors.

Keywords: strabismus: treatment 
×
×

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

Sign in or purchase a subscription to access this content. ×

You must be signed into an individual account to use this feature.

×