March 2012
Volume 53, Issue 14
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   March 2012
Binocular Vision Corrective Spectacle Lenses Reduce Visual Fatigue In 3-d Television Viewing
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Jae-do Kim
    School of Optometry, Kyungwoon University, Gumi Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
  • Jeong Ho Yoon
    Department of Optometry, Choonhae College of Health Science, Ulju-gun Ulsan, Republic of Korea
  • Kenneth J. Ciuffreda
    Vision Sciences, SUNY College of Optometry, New York, New York
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  Jae-do Kim, None; Jeong Ho Yoon, None; Kenneth J. Ciuffreda, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science March 2012, Vol.53, 1780. doi:
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      Jae-do Kim, Jeong Ho Yoon, Kenneth J. Ciuffreda; Binocular Vision Corrective Spectacle Lenses Reduce Visual Fatigue In 3-d Television Viewing. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(14):1780.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose: : To assess symptom type and severity following 65 minutes of 3-D television viewing in young adults with and without their binocular vision corrective spectacle lenses (BVCSL).

Methods: : 35 adult subjects (ages 32.2+/- 4.4 yrs) were pre-screened out of 98 individuals to have the highest symptom/asthenopia scores following 65 minutes of 3-D television viewing with their habitual distance spectacle correction. They did not have amblyopia, strabismus, or ocular disease. These 35 individuals were then retested as they watched 3-D television for 65 minutes at a distance of 2.7m (which reduced the mismatch between accommodation and vergence). Retesting was conducted in a counterbalanced manner with either their habitual distance corrective spectacles or their BVCSL; the latter corrected/compensated for their exophoria with base-in prisms, their esophoria with base-out prisms (combined with 0.75D yoked prisms), and their vertical phoria with vertical prisms. A 4-point symptom-rating scale questionnaire (0=mild and 3=severe) was used to assess 11 symptoms (e.g., blur, diplopia, etc.) related to visual fatigue/visual discomfort. It was administered at 4 equal intervals during each 65 minute test session.

Results: : There was a significant (p<0.001) overall reduction in the asthenopia score from 21.9 without, to 9.5 with, the BVCSL at the end of the session, as well as at each periodic assessment interval (p<0.001). The asthenopia score increased progressively without the BVSCL (p<0.001), but remained constant with the BVSCL (p=0.12). The primary symptoms were eye strain, dry eye, eye soreness, and headache without the BVSCL.

Conclusions: : Correction of one's phoria/vergence-based binocular vision imbalance resulted in a significant reduction in asthenopia both during and immediately following 65 minutes of 3-D television viewing. An individual's phoria-based binocular vision imbalance should be corrected/compensated with appropriate prisms prior to prolonged viewing of 3-D television displays to optimize the interactions between vergence and accommodation, thereby resulting in reduced/minimal asthenopia/visual fatigue.

Keywords: binocular vision/stereopsis • spectacle lens 

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