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Marita A. Gronlund, Jovanna Dahlgren, Ann-Katrine Karlsson, Eva Aring; Auxological Data Are Related To Ophthalmological Findings In Preschool Children. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):1583.
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To evaluate ophthalmological findings in preschool children born moderately preterm and born at term as well as relate the findings to auxological data at birth and at 5.5 years of age.
78 children (34 girls, 44 boys; mean age 5.7 yrs), 27% born small for gestational age (SGA) (n=21) and consequently 57 children (73%) born appropriate for gestational age (AGA), were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study of otherwise healthy premature children born with a gestational age (GA) of 32+0 to 36+6 weeks. An ophthalmological examination was performed including visual acuity (VA), refraction in cycloplegia, orthoptic evaluation, slit-lamp examination, ophthalmoscopy, and history of visuoperceptual problems. Correlations were made with birth weight (BW), birth length (BL), head circumference (HCF) at birth, GA, weight, height, and HCF at 5.5 years of age. Data was compared with data for an age- and sex-matched group of Swedish school children born at term (n=35).
Statistical analysis between the groups (preterm-SGA/preterm-AGA/fullterm) showed a statistical significant difference with regard to ophthalmological diagnosis (p=0.0004), motility (p=0.03), distance phoria (p=0.006), and refraction in both right (p=0.01) and left (p=0.01) eye. Ophthalmological diagnosis was related to GA (p=0.0004), BW (p<0.0001), BL (p=0.001), and HCF at birth (p=0.02); VA to weight (p=0.005), height (p=0.02) and HCF (p=0.008) at 5.5 years of age; hyperopia to HCF at birth (p=0.03); and abnormal fundus morphology (e.g. large excavations and increased tortuosity of retinal vessels) to BW (p=0.049).
Auxological data at birth, especially birth weight, seems to be an important factor when conducting an ophthalmological diagnosis in preschool children born moderately preterm. In addition, auxological data at 5.5 years of age are related to VA outcome.
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