March 2012
Volume 53, Issue 14
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   March 2012
Analysis of Universal Eye Screening in 3573 Healthy Full-term Neonates in Kunming, Yunnan Province, China
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Paul J. Rychwalski
    Cleveland Clinic, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland, Ohio
  • Li Li-Hong
    Ophthalmology, Maternal and Children's Hospital, Kunming, China
  • Zhao Jun-Yang
    Ophthalmology, Tongren Ophthalmic Center, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
  • Li Na
    Ophthalmology, Maternal and Children's Hospital, Kunming, China
  • Guo-ming Zhang
    Ophthalmology, Shenzen Eye Hospital, Jinan University, Shenzen, China
  • Tang Ying
    Ophthalmology, Maternal and Children's Hospital, Kunming, China
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  Paul J. Rychwalski, None; Li Li-Hong, None; Zhao Jun-Yang, None; Li Na, None; Guo-ming Zhang, None; Tang Ying, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science March 2012, Vol.53, 2082. doi:
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      Paul J. Rychwalski, Li Li-Hong, Zhao Jun-Yang, Li Na, Guo-ming Zhang, Tang Ying; Analysis of Universal Eye Screening in 3573 Healthy Full-term Neonates in Kunming, Yunnan Province, China. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(14):2082.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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This work seeks to establish the effectiveness of a newborn screening program for detecting ocular pathology in the healthy, full-term neonate. The screening utilizes the Retcam wide-field digital imaging system (Clarity Medical Systems, Pleasanton, CA). Early detection may lead to treatments that can prevent blindness and visual disability.


Neonates born in the Maternal and Children’s Hospital of Kunming, China, were screened within seven days after birth using flashlight, retinoscope, hand-held slit lamp microscope and wide-angle digital retinal image acquisition system (RetCam 2). External eye, pupillary light reflex, red reflex, the opacity of refractive media, anterior chamber, and posterior segment were examined.


A total of 3573 healthy neonates were enrolled in the screening program, with detection of 848 abnormal cases (23.73%). The abnormal exams included 769 retinal hemorrhage (21.52%). Of these there were 215 cases of significant retinal hemorrhage representing 6.02% of the total. In addition, 67 cases (1.88%) involved macula hemorrhage. The other 107 cases (2.99%) included: subconjunctival hemorrhage, lacrimal duct obstruction, congenital microphthalmos, congenital corneal leucoma, posterior synechia, persistent pupillary membrane, congenital cataract, enlarged C/D ratio, retinoblastoma, optic nerve defects, abnormal distribution of macular pigment, and non-specific peripheral retinopathy.


Screening of all healthy newborns leads to detection of a significant number of ocular pathologies. RetCam photodocumentation is a safe, convenient, fast, and objective technique to screen newborns, enabling timely treatment and detailed follow-up including longitudinal observation of lesions.  

Keywords: clinical (human) or epidemiologic studies: systems/equipment/techniques • screening for ambylopia and strabismus • trauma 

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