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Patricia Fernandez, Sergio Recalde, Maite Moreno-Orduña, Laura García-García, Vanessa Fernández-García, Alfredo García-Layana; Azithromycin (Azyter®) Reduces Inflammation In A Rat Model Of Acute Conjunctivitis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):1931.
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Macrolide antibiotics are known to have a variety of anti-inflammatory effects in addition to antimicrobial activity, but the mechanisms are still unclear. We investigated the effect of azithromycin on inflammatory molecules in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced rat conjunctivitis.
Twenty-four wistar rats were divided into 2 groups receiving topical ocular azithromycin (AZ; 15 mg/g) or vehicle (V). In total, six doses (25 µl) were administered as one dose twice a day for three days prior to subconjunctival LPS injection (3 mg/ml). Before sacrifice, mucus secretion, conjunctival and palpebral edema and redness were evaluated. Real time PCR was used to determine gene expression for IL-6, COX-2, TNF-α, MMP-2 and MMP-9. IL-6 and TNF-α tissue levels were determined by ELISA, NFΚB by western-blot and MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity by gelatin zymogram. Four eyes per group were processed for histology and subsequent Masson’s Trichrome staining. T-student analysis or Wilcoxon test for independent samples were applied (SPSS v.15.0). Data assist v 2.0 was used for gene expression quantitative analysis.
AZ group showed a significant reduction of all clinical signs (P<0.05) when compared with V group. Furthermore, IL-6 (P=0.043) and NFΚB protein expression (P=0.004) and MMP-2 activity (P=0.018) in conjunctival homogenates were significantly reduced compared with vehicle administered animals. MMP-2 gene expression showed a tendency to significantly reduce in AZ group (P=0.063). Moreover, mucus secretion by Goblet cells was also reduced in AZ group.
These results suggest that azithromycin administration ameliorate LPS-induced inflammation effects in a rat model of acute conjunctivitis.
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