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Claudio A. Ramirez, Khoa Pham, Marilyn Chwa, Ashish U. Sapkal, Astrid G. Limb, Baruch D. Kuppermann, M C. Kenney; Effects Of Memantine On Arpe-19 And Müller Cells (MIO-M1) Exposed To Hydroquinone (Hq) In Vitro. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):2343.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To study the in vitro protective effects of memantine, a neuroptotectant used in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and glaucoma, on ARPE-19 and Müller Cells (MIO-M1) exposed to hydroquinone (HQ), one of the toxic components of cigarette smoke.
ARPE-19 and MIO-M1 cells were pretreated for 6 hours with 30µM of memantine and then exposed to 200µM, 100µM, 50µM and 25µM HQ. Cell viability (CV) was then measured by a trypan blue dye exclusion assay and a ROS/RNS assay was performed to evaluate hydrogen peroxide, peroxyl radicals, and peroxynitrite anions.
CV for ARPE-19 cells exposed to 200µM, 100µM, 50µM and 25µM HQ was 15.40±1.27, 59.28±0.74, 74.28±1.49 and 94.85±0.86 respectively. DMSO equivalents were used as controls. Pretreatment with 30µM memantine resulted in an increase in CV at the three highest HQ doses, with values of 54.68±1.33 (p<0.0001), 90.35±1.19 (p<0.0001), 93.78±1.03 (p<0.0001) and 97.15±1.17 (p< 0.1671) respectively. CV for 200µM, 100µM, 50µM and 25µM HQ exposed MIO-M1 cells were 33.95±1.08, 38.45±1.40, 56.78±2.69 and 86.70±1.46 respectively, which increased after memantine pretreatment to 81.9±2.17 (p<0.0001), 83.83±1.17 (p<0.0001) 84.60±1.79 (p<0.0001) and 92.10±0.71 (p< 0.0163).ROS/RNS levels decreased after memantine pretreatment at the four concentrations of HQ in both cell lines. ARPE-19 cells showed fluorescence levels of 13730±759.3, 13380±622.6, 11930±367.7 and 10340±388.3 after treatment with HQ alone respectively and decreased after memantine pretreatment to 9469±876.8 (p< 0.021), 5710±938.0 (p< 0.002), 3986±838.2 (p< 0.0010) and 3566±447.2 (p< 0.0003). MIO-M1 cells treated with the same concentrations of HQ alone showed fluorescence levels of 13370±396.5, 11380±83.14, 10270±102.5 and 9977±89.63. The values decreased after memantine pretreatment to 8036±618.4 (p< 0.0019), 5043±739.5, (p< 0.0010), 3599±431.7 (p< 0.0001) and 3232±113.9 (p<0.0001) respectively.
Memantine exerts an in vitro protective effect against HQ induced toxicity on human retinal pigment epithelial and Müller cells.
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