March 2012
Volume 53, Issue 14
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   March 2012
electroretinography Using a Fiber Electrode Prototype in Dogs
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Adriana Berezovsky
    Departamento de Oftalmologia, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • Alexandre L. Pereira
    Clinica Veterinaria Arca de Noe, Atibaia, Brazil
  • Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira
    Departamento de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Brazil
  • Vagner R. Santos
    Departamento de Oftalmologia, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • Solange R. Salomao
    Departamento de Oftalmologia, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  Adriana Berezovsky, None; Alexandre L. Pereira, None; Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira, None; Vagner R. Santos, None; Solange R. Salomao, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  FAPESP # 04/02669-6; 05/56459-5; CNPq # 474251/2009-8; CNPq Research Scholarship to AB and SRS
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science March 2012, Vol.53, 2473. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      Adriana Berezovsky, Alexandre L. Pereira, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira, Vagner R. Santos, Solange R. Salomao; electroretinography Using a Fiber Electrode Prototype in Dogs. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(14):2473.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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To compare full-field electroretinogram (ERG) responses recorded in dogs with monopolar ERG-Jet lens electrode to those obtained with a microfiber electrode prototype, using the ERG standards of the International Society for the Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV).


Ten healthy Yorkshire terrier dogs (mean age 2.80 yrs ± 1.42; 6 females) weighing 5.20 ±1.56 kg were evaluated using an ERG system for veterinary use (BPM 200, Retinographics, Norwalk EUA). Previous ophthalmic examination on all dogs including visual response, dazzle reflex, pupillary light reflex, Schirmer tear test, tonometry and fundoscopy showed no abnormalities. Standard ERG rod and cone responses were recorded from a fully dilated pupil after 30 min of dark-adaptation using a monopolar ERG-Jet lens electrode in one eye and the microfiber electrode prototype in the other. The electrode type to be used on each eye (OD x OS) was randomly selected. The reference electrode was positioned in the skin at 1cm near the lateral canthus and the ground electrode near the occipital region. Three weeks later the procedure was repeated changing eyes (OD x OS) for the active electrode. After presenting dark- and light-adapted stimuli, each response was analyzed for a- and b-wave amplitudes and implicit times. Statistical analysis using paired t-test was performed to compare parameters of amplitude (μV) and implicit time (ms) for the ERG responses, using only right eye data.


The magnitude and waveform quality obtained with the two electrodes were similar for all ERG responses. ERG a-wave and b-wave amplitudes and implicit times obtained from healthy Yorkshire terrier dogs using the microfiber electrode prototype were not significantly different from those obtained with the ERG-Jet lens electrode for rod response, maximal response, cone response and 30-Hz flicker. A trend without statistical significance for slower b-wave implicit time for rod, maximal, cone and 30-Hz Flicker responses was observed with the prototype electrode when compared to ERG-Jet lens electrode.


The results showed that the ERG waveforms obtained with the two electrode types were remarkably similar for rod, maximal, cone and 30-Hz flicker responses. The microfiber electrode prototype is an alternative instrument for clinical veterinary ERG recording for retinal function assessment.

Keywords: electroretinography: non-clinical • electrophysiology: non-clinical • retina 

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