Purchase this article with an account.
Russell J. Adams, Mary L. Courage, James R. Drover, Jesse S. Church; Refractive Error in 2- to- 6-year-old Children: Normative Data Obtained With The Welch Allyn SureSight Non-Cycloplegic Autorefractor. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):2826.
Download citation file:
© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
The use of hand-held autorefractors has emerged as an important tool for rapidly assessing refractive error in young pediatric patients. Perhaps the most popular of these devices, the Welch Allyn SureSight has been adopted by many individual clinicians worldwide and has been used in several large experimental screening studies, including our own (Drover et al, ARVO 1996). Interestingly however, the manufacturers do not provide normative developmental data for the SureSight and to date, no one has conducted such a study. In the present work, we attempt to provide normative refractive error data by testing a large heterogeneous sample of preschool children. Such information is vital for providing the proper context for interpreting refractive error results from individual pediatric patients.
Non-cycloplegic refractive measurement of right eyes from 1325 2- to 6- year old children was attempted twice with the Welch Allyn SureSight autorefractor. Although the children were volunteers, our sample is likely representative of a general pediatric population as testing was conducted at all daycare centres in the metropolitan region, participation rates were high, and no children were excluded on the basis of ophthalmic, neurological, developmental, or systemic disorders.
1231 of the children completed testing. Based on their age at the time of testing, children were placed into age groups, each spanning a 6-month period. Results showed that mean spherical refractive error was remarkably consistent across the age span (range = +1.4 to +1.7D), as was variability. However, mean cylindrical refractive error showed a steady decline from 0.74D at 2 years to 0.50D at 6 years. Again, variability and percentile limits were relatively constant across groups
For the Welch-Allyn non-cycloplegic autorefractor, the present results provide the first extensive normative developmental data on refractive error across the critical preschool period. Measurements with the SureSight show that from 2 to 6 years of age, children show progressively less astigmatism, yet remain consistently hyperopic (about + 1.5D) across this age span. Nonetheless, this hyperopic "plateau" in spherical refractive error may be short-lived, as previous work with older children reveals a significant progression toward myopia after the 7th year of life. Perhaps more importantly, this data set now provides a more extensive basis for interpreting refractive error results from individual pediatric patients.
This PDF is available to Subscribers Only