April 2011
Volume 52, Issue 14
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   April 2011
Dry Eye Disease (DED), Symptom Severity, and Associated Factors among Men and Women who Reported a Diagnosis of DED: A Survey
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Debra A. Schaumberg
    Preventive Medicine, Harvard Med Sch/Brigham & Women's, Boston, Massachusetts
  • Jim Z. Li
    Clinical Development & Medical Affairs, Pfizer Inc, San Diego, California
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  Debra A. Schaumberg, Pfizer, Inc. (F); Jim Z. Li, Pfizer, Inc. (E)
  • Footnotes
    Support  Primary support from Pfizer, Inc.; The WHS is supported by NIH Grants CA047988, HL043851, HL080467, HL099355, and the PHS by NIH grants CA 97193, CA 34944, CA 40360, HL 26490, and HL 34595.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2011, Vol.52, 3851. doi:
  • Views
  • Share
  • Tools
    • Alerts
      This feature is available to authenticated users only.
      Sign In or Create an Account ×
    • Get Citation

      Debra A. Schaumberg, Jim Z. Li; Dry Eye Disease (DED), Symptom Severity, and Associated Factors among Men and Women who Reported a Diagnosis of DED: A Survey. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):3851.

      Download citation file:

      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

  • Supplements

Purpose: : To explore factors associated with severity of symptoms in a community sample of men and women who reported a diagnosis of dry eye disease (DED).

Methods: : In a cross-sectional survey of 4000 participants in the Women’s Health Study and Physicians’ Health Studies with previously diagnosed DED or severe symptoms, we assessed the current level of DED symptoms as measured by Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), co-morbidities, treatments, patient satisfaction, and impact of disease. Data from 1925 respondents (1390 women and 535 men) who confirmed a reported diagnosis of DED were analyzed using logistic regression.

Results: : The mean age was 72.4 years and mean DED duration was 10.4 years. Severe DED (OSDI score >32) was present in 28.8% of participants with another 14.9% with moderate DED (23<= OSDI score <=32). Co-morbidities included blepharitis (14.4%), rosacea (12.7%), corneal ulcer (6.0%), Sjögren’s syndrome (4.0%), and meibomiam gland dysfunction (2.4%). In multivariable models, participants with severe DED were more likely to be female (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.84, p<0.0001), and to report poorer overall health (OR=1.37 per grade increase; max 4 grade changes), depression (OR=1.59; p=0.003), use of artificial tears (OR=1.64, p=0.004), previous eye surgery (OR=1.47, p=0.005), blepharitis (OR=1.54, p=0.013), and Sjögren’s syndrome (OR=1.75, p=0.049). There was no association between severe DED symptoms and duration of DED (per 5 years, OR=0.94, p=0.51).

Conclusions: : These cross-sectional data from a large group of men and women with a self-reported diagnosis of DED do not support a strong association between the duration of DED and the severity of symptoms. Adjusting for age, sex, and disease duration, participants with severe symptoms of DED had poorer overall health, and increased prevalence of depression, previous eye surgery, blepharitis, Sjögren’s syndrome, and artificial tear use.

Keywords: cornea: tears/tear film/dry eye • clinical (human) or epidemiologic studies: natural history • clinical (human) or epidemiologic studies: risk factor assessment 

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

Sign in or purchase a subscription to access this content. ×

You must be signed into an individual account to use this feature.